APTED BROS. , 54 YONCE ST.
What is there in it?
How TO FIND THEM
THE INFORMATION CALLED
FOR BY THE ORDINARY BUSINESS MAN, WHO IS INTERESTED
FOR BUSINESS REASONS ONLY,
MINES, METALS AND ORES
W. THOS. NEWMAN
The M. Rogers Publishing Co.
Entered according to Act of the Parliament of
Canada, in the year one thousand eight hundred and
ninety-five, by M. Rogers Newman, Toronto, Ontario,
in the Office of the Minister of Agriculture.
My object in attempting this work, is to
provide a little practical information, on a sub-
ject, of great interest to many who have little
or no knowledge of the matters treated herein;
and who have neither the time, nor the oppor-
tunity, to undertake the study, necessary to an
understanding of the great number of more
scientific and more comprehensive books, now
I have endeavored to give, in as simple
language as possible, an insight into the entic-
ing business of searching for and exploiting
Mines, carefully avoiding such matters as are
of purely scientific value, and confining myself
to those likely to influence people who are en-
gaged in prospecting, or interested in Minerals,
from commercial motives only.
The use of scientific terms has been avoided
where possible, and when used, care has been
taken to explain their meaning and application.
In short this work is intended for the benefit
of the business man, the investor, the ranger,
the settler, and those generally, who, if given
a little knowledge of Mines and Mining, might
be induced to turn that knowledge to practical
The first part proper, deals with rocks, giv-
ing a general idea of how they are formed
and altered, and how mineral deposits of value
to commerce occur in them, with the names
and characters of rocks commonly met with in
The third part sketches the means em-
ployed to determine, or identify, the different ores
and minerals, with a list of all known elements
and their symbols.
Part four contains a description of each
of the ores of the metals, of use as such in the arts,
with a knowledge of how they are tested by
simple means, and the methods employed in
their treatment on a commercial scale.
The fifth section describes non-metallic min-
erals; or those used for purposes other than the
extraction of their metals ; as at present utilized,
and contains also, a concise description of the
various gems and precious stones, and how
they may be identified.
The last section is a medley of facts, and
hints, on various matters likely to interest any-
one engaged in mining, or desirous of becoming
so, and there follows a very complete glossary
confined to mining terms and phraseology.
W. THOS. NEWMAN
Toronto, December 3ist, 1894
Importance of exploring for Metals. Pros
pectors as a Class. How Mines grow. Where
hidden wealth lies 9-12
ROCK FORMATIONS AND ORE DEPOSITS.
Necessity of a knowledge of rocks, not neces-
sarily a scientific knowledge. How rocks are
made. Stratified rocks. Metamorphic rocks.
Eruptive rocks. Likely formations to contain
Metal. How ores are deposited. Veins and
other ore bodies. The vein that pays. Iron-
bearing rocks. Names and descriptions of rocks,
usually found in metal mining sections !3~23
How TO DISTINGUISH ORES.
Trials of Hardness; Streak; Tenacity; Mag-
netism; Specific Gravity; Crystallization; Simple
uses of the Blowpipe. Explanatory notes.
List of Elements, with symbols, and atomic
DESCRIPTIONS OF NATIVE METALS AND ORES
Gold; how found and extracted. Antimony
ores ; how to test them. Silver ores; and their
treatment. Lead ores ; with their commercial
value. Platinum; its chief characteristics.
Mercury ; where found. Copper ores ; their
value and treatment. Zinc ores ; and associa-
tions. Nickel and Cobalt ores. Tin ores; and
formations found in. Bismuth. Cadmium.
Iron Ores, with their various uses. Manganese
ores, and how useful. Molybdenite; how dis-
tinguished. .Graphite (Blacklead). Tellurium.
Rare Metals 35~73
OTHER MINERALS OF COMMERCIAL VALUE
Aluminium. Bauxite. Alum Shale. Cryolite.
Orthoclase. Kaolin, or China Clay. Fire Clay.
Potter's Clay. Marl. Meerschaum. Asbestos.
Actinolite. Manganese Spar. Fluorspar. Apa-
tite. Gypsum. Marble. Lithographic Lime-
stone. Hydraulic Limestone. Heavy Spar.
Rock Salt. Soapstone. Monazite. Common
Mica. Lithia Mica. Sulphur. Phosphorus.
Arsenic. Natural Gas. Coal. Peat. Petroleum.
Asphaltum. "Mineral Wool." Pitchblende.
Natural Paints. Infusorial Earth. Amber.. 74-90
Diamond. Sapphire. Emerald. Opal. Gar-
net. Zircon. Quartz Gems. Rutile 9i~99
Error in rejecting samples. How to select
samples for assay. The Chemist's information
not sufficient. Prospector's "Kit." Samples
for comparison. Describing a prospect. Cost
of Railway. How to obtain capital. Choosing
a route. What to do on making a discovery.
When Mining should begin. The proper way
to develop. The diamond drill. Selling small
lots of ore. Essentials to successful mining.
Risks of the business. The investor in stocks.
Measures of ores, earth, etc.; how they are
computed. Relative weights of metals. Weights
and volumes of ordinary metals. Water re-
quired for quartzmilling. To calculate the
water-power of a stream. To temper steel.
To solder, or weld. To case-harden. Table
of melting points of metals. Weight and value
of wood as fuel. Common alloys. Cement for
cast-iron. Approximate cost of mining and
treating ores, and of machinery 100-128
A complete glossary of mining terms 129-138
GENERAL INDEX 139-145
" WHAT is THERE IN IT ?" FRONTISPIECE
SECTION OF ROCK FORMATION 23
CUTS OF PANS 36
' ' DOLLY" 39
A BANDED VEIN 99
HIDDEN PLACER 103
GALENA VEINS 104
SHAFTS, ADITS AND LEVELS OF BEAVER SILVER MINE. . . 106
" HARD LUCK " MINE 108
THE DIAMOND DRILL CORE-BIT 113
PROSPECTING AND PROSPECTORS.
To one who has any taste for the freedom
and sport of the untrodden wilderness, and the
pure, ever-changing delights of "Nature un-
defiled" (and who has not, then is his taste per'-
verted); every day of exploring brings its quota
of enjoyment, hope springs eternal, the hardest
labor brings with it such added health and
strength as make it a pleasure, and the explorer
at sixty, is as young in heart and feeling, as
the ordinary business man at forty.
In no other way, and in no other business,
can fortunes be made, which in the making
necessarily enrich the community at the same
time, and in no other calling can fortune be
realized in a day, without causing misery and
loss to others.
When the successful prospector finds a valu-
able mine, he at once adds the present value of
the find, to the wealth of the nation. When
he converts that mine into the medium of ex-
change which supplies his wants, and receives
possibly a large sum therefore, he gives value
for what he receives, and may enjoy his gains
with a clear conscience. The opening of mines
IO PROSPECTORS PECULIARITIES
in any locality, means a direct and lasting bene-
fit to all the dwellers therein; to the laborer
work, and good wages; to the farmer an added
market; therefore, the business of searching for
and developing mines, is an honorable one, and
the prospector takes rank as a public benefactor.
Prospectors are, as a rule, unusually active
men, both mentally and physically, and hard
workers when in the field. The greatest trouble
with the majority of them is this: they are
attacked by a disease commonly called "swelled-
head." The symptoms are the same in each
case, the victim all at once, seems to be im-
pressed with the mistaken idea, that each and
every vein or deposit, found by himself, must
necessarily be of immense value, and that a
fortune is due the finder forthwith, nay ; in many
cases the discoverer seems to become firmly
and honestly imbued with the idea, that he is
already in indisputable possession of millions;
and no amount of argument, or reasoning by
his friends, can dispossess him of this hallu-
cination, while ofttimes, his friends seem also
to share his delusion. Nothing, apparently, can
cure this disease, save only, the remedy used on
the mad canine cutting off his tail close to
his ears and this, financially interpreted, is what
cures the majority. They continue in their con-
ceit until, weary experience and a growing scar-
NEVER REFUSE A CASH OFFER II
city of cash, teaches them that their wealth,
(which may' in a sense be genuine enough) is
not in the shape of legal tender.
The truth is, not one find in one hundred is
worth more than it cost, until hundreds, and
often thousands, of dollars be spent on its ex-
The prospector who understands his business,
will never refuse a cash offer for his prospect,
(received before proper development) if the same
be sufficient to reward him for his time and
Everyone who has had any experience of
prospecting, and handling mining prospects, will
recognize the truth of the saying, "that anyone
may find a mine, but it takes a clever man to
sell it," and as the business of mining becomes
each year more universally understood, it will
become more and more essential, that prospects
be developed into mines before they can be
disposed of to the satisfaction of the prospector,
whose expectations are always in advance of
any possible realization. In searching for gold
or other mines, it is well to remember, that the
first requisite is quantity. New processes and
improved machinery, tend to closer saving and
more economical work, and what is desired to-
day is large bodies of low grade ore. Many a
mine is paying dividends at the present time,
12 HOW MINES GROW.
that a few years ago could not be worked at
all, because the ore was of too low grade to be
profitably treated by the methods and appliances
then in use. Every year is liable to see the
tendency in this direction grow, and therefore
deposits of low grade ore should be carefully
The chemist, and the scientific mechanic are
constantly finding new uses for different mate-
rials. That which is worthless to-day, may
commercially, be very valuable to-morrow, and
as all these materials must come from the earth,
each new appliance, or new application, becomes
a matter of interest to all who deal with minerals.
Unlike most deposits of wealth, a mine grows
larger the more it is used, and more valuable,
as the value is taken from it, and in this con-
nection there is a hint to prospectors. Most in-
dividuals of this class develop the roaming
habits of gypsies, and with this a propensity for
seeing riches a long distance away, much better
than in the immediate neighborhood. There is
no better prospecting field anywhere, than in
the immediate surroundings of proved mines,
where there is untried ground. Right under the
feet of those who follow beaten paths, which
have been walked over for years, lies "hidden
ROCK FORMATION AND ORE DEPOSITS.
The first requisite to success, in searching
for mineral deposits of commercial value, is a
knowledge of what rocks are likely to have in
them; mines containing certain ores, and under
what conditions the ore occurs, in these rocks.
It does not follow, that a scientific know-
ledge of the names, or chemical constituents, of
which rocks are formed, is necessary; although
such an education is very desirable and valu-
able. To be able to recognize the rocks and
minerals on sight, and a general knowledge of the
manner in which they occur, is of greater value.
There are between two hundred and fifty and
three hundred distinct kinds of rocks; re-
cognized and named by petrologists, and divided
into three classes, as explained below; according
to their origin.
Rocks are seldom definite compounds, but
the various minerals are distributed in them in
varying proportions, and in endless combinations
each change making more or less difference in
their appearance; and one rock often changes
so gradually into another kind, that no hard
and fast lines can be drawn between them.
Thus, Granite will in a few yards become Gneiss,
14 ROCK FORMATION.
and the Gneiss in turn give way to Mica Schist,
or some other rock, and so on.
The formation of rocks is going on continu-
ously. The action of rain, frost, and many other
agents of destruction, is slowly, but constantly
wearing away the existing Rocks; the eroded
material, (sand, clay, and vegetable matter
picked up en route), being carried down by
water and ice, ground finer and finer as it
goes, until it reaches still water, and is depos-
ited, in more or less irregular shapes.
The water of a river flowing into the Ocean,
for instance, is constantly bringing down with
it, particles of all kinds of matter, some floating
with the currents, others in actual chemical
solution. On arriving at the Ocean, and all
along the route, these atoms are deposited in
endless combinations, those of highest specific
gravity, being generally the first to drop, the
lighter being carried further on. The Minerals
in solution, mingling with others in the salt
water, are some of them precipitated and help to
bind the rest.
The currents of the Ocean, are also carry-
ing their share, perhaps, lime from the Coral
Islands. Again the Ocean is continually en-
croaching on its shores, whole sections of the
shore line disappearing in a few years, or even
months, the loosened material being carried off
METAMORPHIC ROCKS. 15
to be deposited, in varying forms elsewhere.
This process going on without intermission, day
after day, year after year, results in layers of
tremendous thickness being formed, great pressure
is developed, and in course of time, the whole
is solidified into a series of massive beds.
These beds, or layers, form what are called
the Sedimentary Rocks. They consist of Lime-
stones, Sandstones, Conglomerates, etc., as they
are formed from shells and corals ; sand ; or
boulders and gravel. These lie in alternate
layers called Strata.
Other Rocks have been ejected from great
depths in a fused state, and in most cases have
cooled very slowly. These are called Igneous,
or Eruptive Rocks. They are probably formed
from original Rocks, which have been melted
by subterraneous heat, and have been forced up
by gases under enormous pressure, through fis-
sures, formed by the expansion of the gases
rending the crust.
Trap Dykes, and Granites, are of this origin.
In many cases, over large areas, the whole
of the Sedimentary Rocks have undergone great
changes, and have been perfectly or partially
crystallized. These are called Metamorphic
Rocks. The change is due to heat, which was
not great enough to cause fusion, but which,
was probably continued for ages.
l6 ORE DEPOSITS VEINS.
These rocks are generally much contorted
and fractured, and the fissures have been filled
by the action of heated vapors, or heated springs,
holding metals in solution, and by condensation
and evaporation, and perhaps electrolytic action,
dropping their contents; or by ejection of molten
matter from below. Thus these rocks more
often contain deposits of the metals of Commerce,
than rocks of another origin. This brings us
naturally to sections of rocky country likely to
Where a section shows the rocks to have
been much disturbed, and tilted at all angles;
where Trap Dykes, and Quartz, and Spar Veins,
are frequently met with; there, the prospector
may hope to succeed. The soft, schistose char-
acter, of the rock in places is favorable. A
discoloration, or burnt appearance, is generally
caused by the decomposition of mineral in the
rock, and most deposits of metal, are more or
less softened and rotted on the surface, the de-
composed matter being known as Gossan; (iron
Ore deposits, may be divided into four kinds,
according to their modes of occurrence. These
are called veins or lodes ; pockets, placers, and
beds, and veins occur also of four kinds.
Veins are most frequently met with, and are
known as: Fissure Veins; (often called true veins.)
POCKETS; PLACERS. 17
These are cracks or fissures, caused by the
contraction of the Earth's surface, or by the
bursting of the crust from internal pressure.
They cut right through different strata at any
angle, frequently at right angles to the strike,
or nearly so. Contact Veins ; these run with
the strike but between two distinct formations
namely at the " contact." Gash Veins; are veins
usually of small extent, surrounded and termin-
ated on all sides by the same formation, and
frequently are filled with galena.
A Vein also, sometimes consists, of a number
of small veins or stringers, running parallel to
and at all angles with one another, with rock
between which holds pockets of ore, and which
is sometimes impregnated with ore. This is
called a Stockwerke. Occasionally a vein will
be found lying in a horizontal position and is
then known as a " blanket " vein.
Pockets; are masses of ore of any size, from
a few tons upward, more or less as may happen,
usually unconnected with each other, though
often on the same strike, and sometimes con-
nected by small seams, and indications of ore.
Placers; are deposits of gravel carrying ore,
or metal; generally applied to gold diggings.
Sometimes secondary deposits occur, as for
example Bog ores; these are spread out a foot
l8 THE VEIN THAT PAYS.
or two deep, over larger or smaller areas, and
may be called Beds.
A vein is considered by miners, more likely
to be permanent, and productive, if the walls,
and especially the footwall, be separated from
the vein matter, distinctly, by a soft talcose
casing or gossan, or by clay, (called the selvage,)
and a contact vein also, is likely to be permanent.
Deep mining shows, that veins continue pretty
much the same below, as they appear on the sur-
face, where the surface can be studied for some
distance, although the metal contents or the
gangue, may vary considerably. Often a vein, im-
proves in richness as it is followed down, and par-
ticularly is this the case on first working, and
down to the point of saturation, viz.: the distance
to which surface water has been able to penetrate,
which may be five or ten fathoms. Veins, are
often enriched at the point of contact where two
veins meet, or where the vein is cut by a Trap
Dyke. Also a vein that is poor or barren while
cutting one formation will sometimes prove
productive where it intersects another kind of
Rock. Many veins contain their value in what
is known as a " paystreak," the ore being a
band in the vein, sometimes in the centre, some-
times on one side.
While rich ores are much sought after, large
quantities of low grade pay best.
IRON BEARING ROCKS. IQ
Iron bearing rocks are, preferably, the oldest
geological formations, the ore beds being thicker,
and larger, in these rocks. Mica, or hornblende
gneiss, or schists, sometimes with a crystal-
line limestone band on one side, is the most
likely formation for iron ore, for manufacture
into the metal, and the beds are usually con-
formable to the strike and dip. The cleavable
varieties and Ironstones, are found however, in
both the Crystalline and Stratified Rocks.
The distance from the centre of the Earth
to the surface is equal to 3,956 miles. In
comparison our highest mountains are merely
insignificant ant-hills; our grandest canons but
plough furrows. The temperature is constant
the year round, at about one hundred feet in
depth, and at lower levels invariably increases
about 1 Fah. for each 60 feet of descent, to
the limited depth reached in ordinary mining.
VARIOUS ROCKS OF ORDINARY OCCURRENCE
Clayslates, breaking into thin even slabs.
Any rock composed of coarse fragments,
or pebbles, cemented together. When
these are angular it is called; a BRECCIA.
When the fragments are rounded ; a
2O DESCRIPTIONS OF ROCKS.
Soft, white limestone. Red "chalk" so
called ; is clayey oxide of Iron. French
"chalk" is a soapstone.
Flint or Hornstone, occurring as nodules
Carbonate of lime, containing carbonate
of magnesia; strictly speaking, in equal
proportions. Effervesces in acid on heating.
Triclinic feldspar, and hornblende, with
or without quartz. A tough rock, light
gray, to blackish green in color. Eruptive.
(Basalt, Trap.) Coarse grained. Color,
dark green to brownish black. Eruptive.
Quartz, Feldspar and Mica, with no ap-
pearance of layers or cleavage, used for
monuments, etc., taking a fine polish.
Like Granite, but in layers, used for build-
ing flagstones, etc. Metamorphic.
Cleavable Labradorite ; (Lime-soda Feld-
DESCRIPTIONS OF ROCKS. 21
spar) and Pyroxene. Color, dull red, gray
to black ; of Igneous origin.
HYDRO MIC A SCHIST:
Green to white in color ; sometimes dark
gray; and soft. Hydrous Mica often with
quartz. Foliated, splitting into thin wedge
shapes. Smooth greasy surface, and pearly
Flexible Sandstone a schistose granular
quartz with mica or talc. (Diamond bearing
A flinty quartz of dull red, yellow, or
green color, and breaking smooth like flint.
Carbonate of Lime, or Calcite ; generally
contains some clay or sand. Color, cream
or nearly white ; blue, brown, and black.
Usually contains fossils. Crystalline lime-
stone forms the various marbles. Effer-
vesces with a drop of hydrochloric acid.
Sedimentary; or if crystalline; metamorphic.
Mostly Mica, with much quartz and some
Feldspar. Divides easily into wedge-
shaped slabs. Color, from silvery to black.
Crumbles readily. Metamorphic.
22 DESCRIPTIONS OF ROCKS.
A massive rock, showing crystals distinct
from the matrix.
Indurated Sandstone ; that is, composed
of quartz, but not showing grains.
Merely a solidified bed of sand, generally
quartz sand, sometimes contains mica,
clay or fossils. Used for grindstones; build-
Massive, easily cut with a knife, and
greasy to the touch. Dark green, to
yellowish, and mottled. Composed of
silicate of magnesia, and a little iron. Takes
a high polish, and is called "marble."
STE ATITE-SOAPSTONE :
Consists of Talc. Massive. Feels soapy.
Gray to green and white.
A rock composed of Hornblende, and
Feldspar without quartz. Flesh colored
or grayish white.
TALCOSE SCHIST :
Slaty Talc. Mica Schist is often mistaken
for Talcose Schist, but does not contain
The common term for, basic Igneous rocks.
SECTION OF ROCK FORMATION.
Igneous rocks frequently overflow, on the sur-
face, but sometimes the fluid matter does not
reach the open, until by the erosion, or planing
away of the overlying strata, it is exposed, ap-
pearing often as a chimney. Faults, veins, tilting
and all such phenomena are purely accidents on
SCALE, 1,000 feet = l inch.
a. Crystalline limestone. c. Limestone, e. Trap over-
flow t. Slates. F. Quartzite. o. Granite (Eruptive), m.
Gneisses (Metamorphic). N. Tilted Slates. R. Contact Vein.
P. 2nd Vein. L. ist Vein. V. Newest Vein. x. Stringer
a large scale. An idea of their occurrence may
be had by supposing a confined heap, composed
of alternate layers of sand, gravel and clay, to
have a body of quicklime in the centre and the
lime to become mixed with water. The effect
would be to fissure the heap in all directions, and
cause portions to be lifted bodily, while other
parts would naturally fall in, and the slaked liquid
lime would fill all crevices.
HOW TO DISTINGUISH ORES.
QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS : is the determination
of the elements contained in an ore or mineral,
and shows what the different ingredients are,
but does not show the amount of each.
QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS: shows not only the
nature of a compound, but also the amount, or
percentage, of each constituent.
The ores of the metals are distinguished,
and recognized, by their hardness; color; streak;
lustre; malleability; specific gravity; crystalliz-
ation ; and chemical reactions ; minerals having
a definite chemical composition. The first five
tests, are those which are of most practical use
to the prospector, and most easily made in the
HARDNESS: This quality is particularly use-
ful, in distinguishing many ores, (such as Copper
Pyrites from Iron) and in deciding the possible
value, of pebbles as gems, and many non-metallic
minerals. This is the quality of resisting abra-
sion, not resistance to blows. The scale runs
from i (represented by Talc); to 10 (represented
by the Diamond).
SCALE OF HARDNESS.
SCALE OF HARDNESS.
1. Foliated Talc.
1. Yields easily to the finger
2. Does not yield to nail, or
scratch a copper coin.
3. Scratches a coin, but is
also scratched by coin.
4. Not scratched by coin,
and will not scratch
5. Scratches glass feebly;
easily cut by a knife.
6. Scratches glass easily,
and is hard to cut with
7. Cannot be cut by a knife.
Harder than flint or quartz.
8. Topaz. i
9. Corundum. J-
10. Diamond. J
COLOR: This is readily seen by daylight, and
the terms used to designate it are metallic: as
lead-gray; iron-black; etc., non-metallic: as blue,
bluish; gray, grayish; etc., etc. All ores showing
bright red, blue or green colors externally, should
be examined carefully.
STREAK: Both the external color, and a sur-
face that has been scratched, should be ex-
26 HOW ORES ARE TESTED.
amined. The latter is called the streak, and
frequently show marked difference from the
outside color. This is best examined by draw-
ing a small three cornered file across the sample,
and then across the thumb, or on a streak-plate.
MALLEABILITY: This is the quality of being
flattened out under the hammer without break-
ing. As a rule, any ore that is soft, and easily
cut, is likely to be of value, and if it will stand
being hammered out, it is valuable. Also a
mineral is said to be brittle, when easily broken,
or sectile, when it can be sliced with a knife.
LUSTRE : The property of reflecting light, or
shining. The kinds of lustre are: vitreous or
stoney; metallic; pearly; silky; resinous (or like
gum) ; adamantine.
Many ores tarnish on exposure, and this
serves, in some cases as a guide, in determining
DIAPHANIETY : The property of allowing light
to pass through, as ; transparent, when an object
is distinctly seen through the substance ; trans-
lucent, when light is transmitted but objects are
SPECIFIC GRAVITY : Is the weight of a piece
of mineral compared with an equal bulk of pure
water, which is taken as a standard. This is
difficult to ascertain in the woods, requiring a
HOW ORES ARE TESTED. 2.J
delicate balance. Weigh a small piece of mineral
in the ordinary manner, and then suspend it by
a hair, in distilled water at 60 and weigh again,
subtract the second weight from the first, and
divide the first by the difference result is Sp.
G. Usually the weight of a substance is a good
guide to the amount of metal contained in it.
MAGNETISM : Many ores are more or less
magnetic. Black Iron ore (Lodestone) is con-
sidered to be the only one having decided attrac-
tion, but Nickeliferous Pyrrhotite is sometimes
so magnetic as to form a perfect natural com-
pass. Some minerals will only attract the needle
after being heated, the iron in these being
changed to the magnetic oxide by ignition.
CRYSTALLIZATION: While Form and Structure
are of great service in the determination of
minerals, crystallography is a complete study
in itself, and does not fall within the scope of
this work. Those who desire to pursue the study
of mineralogy, should procure a copy, of the
Manual of Mineralogy and Lithology, by Pro-
fessor James D. Dana, or the larger work: A
New System of Mineralogy by Messrs. J. D.
and E. S. Dana.
The list in the following chapter, comprises
most of the ores, from which metals are obtained
for commercial purposes, at present, with the
exception of those used in small quantities, or
28 THE BLOWPIPE.
for other reasons, not of much interest to the
ordinary prospector or business man.
Although the amount of metal in pure ore, is
given, practically ores are never found sufficiently
free from impurities, to come up to the proper
standards and due allowance should be made.
The specific gravity varies accordingly.
Note, that very few ores, look in the least
like the metal they contain, even the native
metals in a natural condition being tarnished
and often alloyed.
A drop of Hydrochloric Acid serves to dis-
tinguish a carbonate, by causing an effervescence,
but not always, without heating the substance,
during the test.
THE BLOWPIPE : This is a most useful aid
in determining the different minerals. A brief
description only, need be attempted here. Those
who desire to follow up the hints given, are
referred to Professor Chapman's " BLOWPIPE
PRACTICE " a standard work on the Blowpipe.
The essentials are; a blowpipe, (which is
merely a tapered tube ending in a very small
orifice, by which the flame of a spirit lamp, or
candle, may be concentrated on a minute quan-
tity of the substance to be examined, in powder)
pieces of charcoal; grease lamp; spirit lamp;
alcohol; borax; carbonate of soda; platinum and
BLOWPIPE TRIALS. 2Q
iron wire; bone-ash, a few pieces of glass tube
(about % inch in diameter,) and a pair of small
The Blowpipe may be had from any jeweler.
A little practice, is necessary to maintain a
steady stream of air from the mouth.
In making most tests the mineral is powdered
and laid, either with, or without, an excess of
soda, in a hollow in a piece of firm charcoal.
The substance proves infusible, or fuses without
yielding metal, sometimes vaporizes entirely,
and again, leaves a coating on the charcoal, or
a globule of metal. The flame, in some cases
is tinged various colors, by different minerals,
(this should be noted against a dark back-
The coating or deposit left varies for different
minerals and the colors change as the support
cools. These deposits are best examined on a
smooth piece of plaster of paris, used in place of
To test for water, place a little powdered
mineral in the lower end of a test tube, (closed
at one end) and heat ; the moisture if any, will
be found condensed at the upper part.
A piece of mineral the size of a pin head, is
held in the forceps to try the fusibility.
Sulphur, Arsenic, and Selenium compounds,
3O THE MICROSCOPE.
give off their peculiar odors. Arsenic smells
like garlic. Selenium, like decaying horseradish.
To detect Sulphur, moisten a little mineral
and soda into a paste; fuse and place on a
silver coin. The sulphur, if present, will stain
the coin black.
Gold, Silver, Copper, Tin, and Lead ; yield
malleable beads, either with or without soda.
Platinum, Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt, give
infusible metallic grains. Bismuth and Antimony,
brittle beads, with deposit. Mercury, Cadmium
and Zinc, are volatilized, the two latter leaving
Manganese colors a bead of borax, (formed on
platinum wire (No. 27); by making a small loop
on one end and fusing the borax into it, and
then taking up a very small particle of ore;) a
violet color. Chromium, a green color,
Strontia, and Lithia, color the flame, deep
THE MICROSCOPE. By an examination of
very thin slices of rock under the microscope,
the presence, or absence, of many minerals is
ascertained. The word Macroscopic is used to
signify an examination, made without the use
of the microscope, or with only a pocket lens.
The following abbreviations are used through-
out this work: BB.=Before the Blowpipe. H.
=Hardness. G.=Specific Gravity.
LIST OF ELEMENTS.
The following table contains all the elements
at present known to the chemist, and all are
found in minerals. The atomic weights indicate
the proportions in which they combine chemi-
cally. The symbols are the abbreviations, used
in stating the composition in all text-books.
LIST OF ELEMENTS, WITH THEIR SYMBOLS,
AND ATOMIC WEIGHTS.
Hydrogen H. i.
Indium In. 113.4
Iodine I. 126.5
Iridium Ir. 192.5
Iron Fe. 55.9
Lanthanum La. 138.
Lead Pb. 206.4
Lithium Li. 7.
Magnesium Mg. 24.
Manganese Mn. 54.8
Mercury Hg. 199.8
Molybdenum .... Mo. 96.
Nickel Ni. 58.6
Niobium Nb. 93.7
Nitrogen N. 14.
Osmium Os. 191.
Oxygen O. 16.
Palladium Pd. 106.2
Phosphorus P. 31.
Platinum Pt. 194.3
Potassium K. 39.
Rhodium Rh. 104.1
Rubidium Rb. 85.2
Ruthenium Ru. 103.5
Scandium Sc. 44.
Aluminium Al. 27.
Antimony Sb. 120.
Arsenic As. 74.9
Barium Ba. 137.
Beryllium Be. 9.1
Bismuth Bi. 207.5
Boron B. 10.9
Bromine Br. 79.8
Cadmium Cd. 111.7
Caesium Cs. 58.7
Calcium Ca. 39.9
Carbon .C. 12.
Cerium Ce. 141 .
Chlorine Cl. 35.4
Chromium Cr. 52.5
Cobalt Co. 58.7
Columbium (see Niobium.)
Copper Cu. 63.2
Didymium Di. 142.
Glucinum (see Beryllium.)
Gold Au. 196.7
32 ACID AND BASIC ROCKS.
Selenium Se. 78.9 Tin Sn. 1 17.4
Silicon Si. 28. Titanium Ti. 48.
Silver Ag. 107.7 Tungsten W. 183.6
Sodium Na. 23. Uranium U. 240.
Strontium Sr. 87.3 Vanadium V. 51.1
Sulphur S. 32. Ytterbium Yt. 172.6
Tantalum Ta. 182. Yttrium Y. 89.
Tellurium Te. 125. Zinc Zn. 65.1
Thallium Tl. 203.7 Zirconium Zr. 90.4
Thorium Th. 232.
The chemist groups the various ores, accord-
ing to their chemical characters, as: Sulphides;
Arsenides ; Borates ; Carbonates ; etc. As this
work is intended, primarily, for the use of
miners and business men, who are only inter-
ested, in the commercially valuable substances
the ores contain, and care nothing about other
constituents, save as they may affect those values;
I have grouped each under the head of the
metal, or other valuable ingredient, and have
considered it better, also, to leave out any
special mention of the undesired contents of
the ore, except where the same affects the com-
Acid rocks, or slags; are those which con-
tain a high percentage of free silica ; (60 to 80
per cent.) Basic; those slags, or rocks, which
contain little (not more than 45 or 50 per cent.)
or no silica, in a free state. In smelting, those
ores which contain a very large percentage of
silica, require to be neutralized, by mixing an
alkali (such as limestone) in the furnace, while with
basic ores, the opposite course, is pursued.
Miners call any mineral substance found in
nature, which yields anything of commercial
value, an ore. While, speaking mineralogically,
Galena is always a lead ore, when rich in silver,
the miner calls it a silver ore. More properly,
ores are a combination of one or more metals,
(called in this connection bases) with one, or
more acids, or mineralizing agents; thus: Galena
consists of 86.6 per cent, of lead, with 13.4
per cent, of the acid sulphur. Very often, this
is associated with some silver-sulphide, and
again may contain zinc sulphide, or the ore
may be a mixture of the above, with sulphides
of copper, and iron. Again, we have iron in
the form of a sulphide, ( Magnetic Pyrites,
or Pyrrhotite) and also as a bisulphide, when
it is non-magnetic. In this latter case we have
an ore, of which the valuable constituent, is
Minerals are often rendered difficult to treat,
from the presence of some substance foreign to
the ore, as for instance; a very small amount of
Titanic acid, in iron oxides; which will effectually
prevent their being utilized as a source of the
metal by present processes. The presence of
arsenic, replacing sulphur, in gold ores which
34 DELETERIOUS SUBSTANCES.
carry considerable quantities of iron; renders their
treatment much more difficult, and often, unpro-
fitable. Antimony and Zinc are frequently very
troublesome. The presence of these minerals
causes the quicksilver to "flour," or "sicken,"
in which condition a coating forms over it, and
prevents the gold from amalgamating, thus
causing a loss of more or less metal in the
In testing any ore by the means here out-
lined, make the trials in the order mentioned,
and allow a margin for slight variations, which
will be found to exist almost invariably, even
in samples from the same vein, blown out together.
With the description of the ores will be found
the simplest test or tests known, to distinguish
or identify each, but they will only serve the
purpose intended, when mixed with a sufficient
portion of common sense.
NATIVE METALS AND ORES.
One cubic foot of Gold is worth, $363,561.96.
Standard gold or silver, equals goo parts of pure
metal, and 100 of alloy, in 1,000 parts of coin.
The largest nugget of gold ever found was
at Ballarat. Australia, in June, 1858. It was
20 x 9 inches; weighed 2,166 ounces, and con-
tained $41,883 value of gold.
Pure Gold is estimated at 24 carats fine.
Thus gold having one twenty-fourth part copper,
or silver, would be 23 carat gold. Equal parts
gold and another metal, would be 12 carat
gold. All native gold, contains more or less
silver, and sometimes other metals. Average
of Canadian: between 85 and 90: Californian,
87 and 89: Australian, 90 and 96 per cent. gold.
Crystallizes in the isometric system, but
crystals are seldom found.
COLOR : Is the only, yellow-, malleable, min-
eral found in a natural state. Many minerals,
such as Pyrites, are mistaken for gold, but gold
need never be mistaken for anything else. H.=
2.5-3. G.=i9.3-; varying with amount of alloy.
B.B. gives malleable bead. Is not touched by
36 SEARCHING FOR GOLD.
simple acids, but dissolves in Aqua Regia, which
consists of one-fourth nitric to three-fourths hydro-
Gold also occurs as a Telluride (combined
with Tellurium); sometimes of a bronze-yellow
color, and again of a lead-gray color.
In searching for gold, examine first the gravel
bars, and the holes in the rocks, forming the
beds of streams. Never waste time in looking
in the upper part, of the gravel bed, get down
to the bottom. If the gold is there at all, that
is where it will be found, along with platinum,
iridosmine, magnetite, pyrite, copper ores, blende,
zircon, heavy spar, monazite, and various crystals.
Carry with you a bottle of quicksilver. After
picking out the coarse pebbles (carefully examining
some of them by breaking them), place a shovel
of the finer stuff, in a shallow circular pan ;
FOR GRAVEL. FOR QUARTZ.
Fig. i. Fig. 2.
SCALE, 1 inch = l foot.
The best size and shape for a "pan" is shown in the cuts. Fig.
i is the ordinary miner's pan for gravel washing. Fig. 2 is made
of wood, or iron enameled white, and is better for quartz.
(a frying pan, free from grease, will do very
well, on a pinch) and with a circular swing, wash
it with water. A little practice will enable anyone
to retain the finer, heavier, sand, and allow the
WASHING GOLD GRAVEL. 37
lighter coarse stuff, to slip over the edge of the
pan into the stream. When nothing remains,
but a little black sand, examine with pocket
lens for colors of gold, then put in another shovel
of gravel, and repeat the process. Finally, after
a number of shovels of gravel, taken from as
many places as possible, have been so treated,
put in some quicksilver, and thoroughly shake
and rub the fines together, then pour the quick-
silver into a piece of buckskin, and squeeze it
through the buckskin back into a clean dish, to
be returned to its bottle. Place the remainder
on a shovel, and heat to redness. If you have
anything malleable left it is gold, together with
some silver, and any lead in the ore.
Next examine all quartz veins. The softer
the quartz in appearance, the better the chance
of its carrying gold. Though the writer has seen
specimens f of quartz, as clear and hard looking
as glass, containing gold, it is a reasonable
theory that when gold is present, it usually
interferes with the perfect crystallization of the
quartz. Quartz is called the "mother of gold,"
and all gold, so far as known, is derived from
quartz veins. Those veins cutting talcose schists,
or clay slates, are the most favorable, rather
than mica schist, or gneiss. The gold is frequently
so fine, as to be invisible except to a powerful
38 TRYING QUARTZ.
A small pestle, and mortar, are necessary, to
crush the quartz to fine sand, which may be
treated as above.
Another and better method of trying quartz
is, to fill a piece of glass tubing, an inch in
diameter, one-third full of the powdered rock,
and shake it well with quicksilver. This is very
convenient, and by marking the space occupied
by a known weight of ore, a very close estimate
may, after some practice, be made, of the quan-
tity of free milling gold, the quartz in a given
vein carries. Or the ore may be dissolved in
Aqua Regia, and a solution of copperas added,
when the gold will be precipitated as a brown
powder, which, on being rubbed, will show the
Mica, and sulphide of iron, (Pyrite), are most
often mistaken for gold, but these are brittle
In known gold bearing territory, it is advisable
to have an assay, of the quartz of all well-defined,
persistent veins, as gold is frequently so fine, as
to be invisible, even to a strong pocket lens.
"Gold is where you find it," is an old saying
amongst miners, and no man may say it will
not be found in a given locality; where the
geological formations; subcrystalline slates, and
schists ; occur.
Very few veins carry visible gold, and they
WORKING A RICH REEF.
are seldom the most valuable. A free milling
quartz, (by which is meant, an ore free from
arsenic, or any other refractory substance,
and amalgamating by simple contact with mer-
cury,) carrying as low as $5.00 per ton, in
gold, will pay handsomely if the vein is large,
easily accessible, the metal evenly distributed,
and easily milled.
A prospector should work a find of auriferous
gravel, to some extent, before offering it for
sale. He should sell a quartz lode, before working
it, if he can find a purchaser, after sufficient
development to show it as a fair prospect.
The following sketch shows a simple and
cheap means of working in a small way, a rich
quartz lode, carrying coarse gold freely. It is
known as a " Dolly," and two men with this
device, will crush enough ore each week, to give
a very satisfactory "clean up" by Sunday.
A -Cushion bars. B. -Hollowed block. C. Sluices. D. Chain-
hook. E. Spring pole. F. Dolly. G. Iron shoe.
40 HOW TO MAKE A "DOLLY."
To make a "Dolly," cut a square hole, (in
a hollow basin in the top of a solid block, or
section of a log firmly planted on the bank of a
stream), six inches wide ; fit in wrought iron
bars, six inches long, one-half inch thick, three
inches deep, and firmly secured. Cut away a
portion of one side, to which attach a spout
leading over the higher end of a sluice-box.
The sluices may be covered on the bottom, by
strips of blankets, and should have cross-bars
called riffles, nailed across the bottom sufficiently
tight to hold fine sand. After having all as solid
as may be, dump in some quartz, broken com-
paratively small, "swing your Dolly," and turn
in more water at intervals, as you get "choked."
Placer mining is carried on by hand, washing
with a pan, or with a "cradle," (a small trough on
rockers); or by the use of streams of water under
pressure, washing down the gravel, through sluices.
This latter is called hydraulic mining.
Gold ores are treated in different ways, in
all cases being first reduced, by stamping or
grinding, to a fine pulp.
First. In Freemilling ; the ore is simply
crushed under stamps, wet, and the pulp is
passed over copper plates, with surfaces covered
with mercury. The gold attaches itself to the
quicksilvered surface, in the form of amalgam,
that is combined with quicksilver, and is scraped
HOW GOLD IS EXTRACTED. 4!
off at intervals, retorted to get rid of the mercury,
and the residue melted into bars.
In the Black Hills, with well arranged mills,
ores carrying but $4.00 per ton are worked
successfully, and in California, under exception-
ally favorable conditions, ores having but $1.00
of gold contents. The ore in this case being
quarried rather than mined.
By panning, or horning down, a pulverized
sample the free gold may be seen, and by
amalgamating, by rubbing with quicksilver, you
may judge if the ore be freemilling.
Secondly. By concentration ; most gold ores
carry other minerals, such as the sulphurets of
iron and copper, or lead, also zinc, and some-
times tellurides, selenides, or antimonites, with in
nearly every instance more or less silver. In these
cases the ore is concentrated, that is, the rock
matter is got rid of by washing, and the sul-
phurets obtained in a more or less "clean" state.
For this purpose Frue vanner machines are
chiefly used, two old style, or one improved
machine, being usually allowed to each battery
of five heavy stamps.
The principle of the Frue vanner concentrating
machine is, an endless rubber belt, four feet
wide, running up an inclined table, and dipping
on the under side into a tank of water, where
42 REFINING CONCENTRATES.
the mineral is washed off. At the head of the
table jets of water, playing on the belt, wash
back the lighter sand, and the water flowing
down the incline washes it away. In addition
there is a steady shaking motion from side to
side, or, at right angles, which materially assists
in the separation of the mineral from the gangue.
The concentrates can be sold to refining
companies, (the most profitable way, in many
cases), or may be further treated, and the gold
obtained by chlorination or smelting.
In chlorination, the concentrates are placed,
after roasting, to expel sulphur, arsenic, etc.; in
gas-tight tubs, or barrels, holding two or three
tons each, and chlorine gas is generated (by the
introduction of chemicals; sulphuric acid, man-
ganese oxide, and salt,) which is allowed to
permeate the ore, and forms chlorides of gold,
and silver. The metals are afterwards precipi-
tated separately, the solutions run off, the metal
collected, dried, melted, and cast into bars.
Or, the sulphide ores may be reduced by
roasting, and amalgamating in pans, or by
smelting direct. We have last year, to record
another new process, which appears to be suc-
cessful in treating mispickel ores ; namely, those
carrying a great deal of arsenic. This is known
as the Carter- Walker process, by which the
ANTIMONY ORES. 43
ore is roasted in closed chambers, the acids
saved, and the gold obtained by vaporizing
Colonel Harvey Beckwith, the widely known
expert on gold mining and milling, makes a
favorable report on this process, -which may
possibly solve the difficult problem, of how to
treat mispickel ores, carrying gold.
This metal is used, chiefly, as an alloy. It
is a brittle silver-white metal obtained from its
ores, which occur in the primary rocks, frequently
with silver, lead, zinc, and iron ores. G. 6.7.
The ore from which most of the metal of
commerce is obtained, is the sulphide ;
ST I B N I T E . GREY ANTIMONY.
Trimetric, commonly with fibrous appearance.
Color and streak, lead-gray. Lustre, shining.
Tarnishes. Brittle. H.=2. G.=4-5 4.62. Con-
tains 71.8 per cent, of antimony; with 28.2 per
cent, of sulphur. B.B. Is volatilized, with dense
white fumes. 7.1 cubic feet=one ton. This ore
is soft, and will melt in the flame of a candle.
NATIVE. Generally massive, occasionally in
rhombohedral crystals. Color and streak, tin-
white. H.=3 3.5. G.=6.6 6.75. Pure Anti-
mony; often with silver. B.B. volatilizes, tinging
44 SILVER ORES.
the flame green, and leaving a heavy white
deposit on charcoal. 4.8 cubic feet in one ton.
Compounds of Antimony and Silver, are often
met with, and when rich in silver make a valu-
Is a pure white metal, very ductile, harder
than gold, but softer than copper. G, = 10.53.
The ores of silver are found in rocks of
all geological ages, in any kind of vein below
the coal measures. The ores are of many dif-
ferent kinds, and silver is found abundantly in
many other ores, such as lead, antimony, zinc,
and copper ores.
NATIVE SILVER only, is white in color, among
ores of silver, though dark and dull on the
surface, and has streak, silver-white and shining.
Often tarnished brownish-black. Malleable; cuts
with knife. Occurs in octahedrons, arborescent
shapes, or massive. H.=2 3. G.=IO.I n.i.
Generally contains some copper, and sometimes
gold. B.B. gives malleable bead.
ARGENTITE. SILVER GLANCE.
In dodecahedrons, and modifications, or massive.
Color and streak, blackish lead-gray. Cuts with
knife, slightly malleable. H.=2 2.5. G.=J
7.4. Contains 87.1 per cent, of silver, with 12.9
per cent, of sulphur. A valuable silver ore.
B.B. gives malleable bead of silver. 4.4 cubic
feet make one ton.
PYRARGYRITE. DARK RED SILVER ORE.
Rhombohedral. Usually in crystals, some-
times massive. Color, black to bright red.
Streak, bright red. Lustre, brilliant. H.=2
2.5. G.=5-7 5.9. Contains 59.8 per cent,
silver; with 17.7 sulphur; and 22.5 per cent, of
antimony. Usually in crystals. B.B. gives bead
with soda. 5.5 cubic feet weigh one ton.
PROUSTITE. LIGHT RED SILVER ORE.
Like Pyrargyrite. G.=5-4 5.56. Contains
65.5 per cent, of silver; with the antimony re-
placed in part, or wholly, by arsenic. 5.8 cubic
feet weigh one ton.
STEPHANITE. BRITTLE BLACK SILVER.
Trimetric ; often in compound crystals, or
massive. Color and streak, iron-black. H. = 2.5.
G.=6.27. Contains 68.5 per cent, of silver;
16.2 of sulphur; and 15.3 of antimony. B.B.
gives bead with soda. 5 cubic ft. weigh one ton.
Dissolved in weak nitric acid, will silver a
piece of clean copper.
CERARGYRITE. HORX SILVER.
Isometric. In cubes, or massive. Color,
gray, green, or blue. Lustre, resinous. Streak,
shining. Cuts like horn or wax, and on an
46 TREATMENT OF SILVER ORES.
outcrop looks like dirty cement. Melts in candle
flame. Contains 75.3 per cent, of silver ; and
24.7 per cent, of chlorine. A valuable ore. B.B.
gives bead easily.
BROMYRITE, OR BROMic SILVER. Silver and
bromine. Bromine, 42.6 per cent. Silver, 57.4
per cent. A common ore.
There are many other ores of silver, but the
above list comprises all the ores commonly
Silver ores are treated by freemilling, or
direct amalgamation in pans, each charge being
worked for several hours, through a series of
pans. This method is applicable to Native Silver;
Horn Silver, and certain forms of sulphides.
The presence of such base metals as Iron, Copper,
Lead, Zinc, or Antimony, interferes with the
process when concentration, and sometimes
roasting-milling, or roasting the ore with salt,
must be resorted to.
Silver mining requires expensive plant, and
large capital, with expert management.
The simplest test for the presence of silver
is: to dissolve the ore in nitric acid, and pour
in strong salt water. This throws down white
flakes, and on exposing these to the sun, they
w T ill turn black if the ore contain silver.
Have any ore suspected to contain silver
SILVER IN LEAD ORES. 47
assayed. On an average, at least $10 per ton as
mined, is necessary to constitute a paying ore.
One cubic foot of silver is worth $13,008.67.
NATIVE. Is a soft, bluish gray metal. Leaves
a mark on paper. Malleable. B.B. fuses easily,
and volatilizes, leaving a yellow ring on charcoal.
Of rare occurrence. G. =11.85.
GALENA. LEAD SULPHIDE.
Isometric. In cubes, also granular, or rarely
fibrous. Color and streak, lead-gray. Shining.
Easily broken. H.=2.5- G.=7-25 7.7. Con-
tains 86.6 per cent, of lead (when pure); 13.4 per
cent, of sulphur; and from one or two to several
thousand ounces of silver. B.B. covers charcoal
with yellow deposit. If carefully treated, finally
yields bead of lead. If bead be placed on a
bone-ash cup, or a cavity in charcoal, filled with
fine bone-ash, smoothly pressed in ; and further
treated, the lead will be absorbed, and the silver
obtained nearly pure. 4.3 cubic feet weigh one
ton. Galena is the chief source of lead.
MINIUM. LEAD OXIDE.
Color, red to yellow. Pulverulent. G.=4-6.
B.B. yields bead of lead. Manufactured for the
CERUSSITE. WHITE LEAD ORE.
Color, white to gray. H.=3. 3.5. G.=6.48.
48 TREATMENT OF LEAD ORES.
Contains 75 per cent, lead, with oxygen, carbonic
acid and impurities. Artificially made.
There are many other ores of lead, containing
various amounts of silver, almost all of which,
are found in association with galena, some abund-
ant in certain localities, others of rare occurrence.
All are distinguished at once, by specific gravity,
and by yielding lead before the blowpipe.
Lead ores are valuable, in the proportion of
their silver contents, but when worked for lead
alone, should average not less than 40 per cent,
Lead ores carrying silver, are treated by
concentration and smelting, or smelting alone.
Like nickel, and copper, the first product or
matte is frequently sold to refiners. The plant
is necessarily costly, and all furnace operations
depend for success, on skilful management by
experts. Also, it is almost an essential, that a
mixture of ores from different mines be made,
and these must be carefully selected, and taken
in certain proportions, which continually vary,
for different ores. Fragments of lead ore, or
heavy spar in crumbling magnesian limestone,
depressions in a straight line, or the red color
of the soil on the surface indicate lead veins,
which are found in rocks of all ages up to the
carboniferous, the largest being usually found in
Silurian limestones overlying slates.
Is a bright, white metal, heavier than gold.
It is used chiefly for chemical and electrical
apparatus. G.=2i.i5 when pure.
NATIVE. Color and streak, steel-gray. Lustre,
metallic, bright. Isometric, but seldom in crystals.
Can be drawn out. Malleable. H,=4 4.5.
G. = i6 19. Not touched by simple acids. Dis-
solves in Aqua Regia. Found in gravel, with
gold, usually alloyed with other rare metals, and
copper or iron. Derived from crystalline rocks.
B. B. Infusible, and wholly unaltered; these
qualities identify it at once. 2 cubic feet weigh
SPERRYLITE. Color, tin-white. Lustre, bright.
H.=about 7. G. = io.6. Contains 56.7 per cent,
of Platinum. Crystals very minute. Found only
in the Sudbury section of Ontario; in detritus
composed of gossan, and rock in a decomposed
condition, apparently derived from seams of
ferruginous mica schist, with some copper pyrites.
The largest nugget of native platinum known
was found in 1827, in the Ural mountains, and
weighed 21 pounds. It measures 4x7 inches.
Has a strong affinity for other metals, gold,
silver, lead, etc., forming an amalgam. It is
5O QUICKSILVER ORE.
Used to extract gold and silver; for mirrors,
barometers, etc., and largely in medicine. Com-
monly called QUICKSILVER.
NATIVE. Bright, white, and liquid, at normal
temperature, melting at 39. G.=i3-6 at 32.
Occurs in globules scattered through the gangue,
derived from the sulphide;
CINNABAR . In rhombohedral crystals, or massive.
Color, bright red, blackish or brownish. Lustre,
unmetallic. Streak, scarlet-red. Crystals are
nearly transparent. LIVER ORE; Isdull, of same
color and streak. H.=2 2.5. G.=8.5 9. It
is identical with the brilliant red pigment, ver-
million. B.B. vaporizes. 3.6 cubic feet weigh
one ton. Can be cut with a knife. Contains 86.2
percent, of mercury ; and 13.8 percent, of sulphur.
Found in schists and slates, both the older
rocks, and those of later age. Never found in
quantity, in the more crystallized rocks, such
as Gneiss. The mercury of commerce is obtained
by distillation, although, it is sometimes dipped
up in buckets, from fissures in the rocks con-
taining the ores.
Is a very tough, ductile metal, of a fine red
color, taking a bright polish, but quickly tarnishing.
Used largely in the arts, both alone, and in brass
and other alloys, also in plating. Large quan-
tities are now used in electric railway plant.
NATIVE COPPER. 5!
NATIVE. Isometric, and tree-like forms. Color,
copper-red. Malleable. Can be drawn out. H.=
2.5 3. G.=8.84. Pure copper occurring in
veins ; in grains, and masses : usually enriched
where crossed by dykes. Sometimes accom-
panied by native silver, and occasionally spread
out in floors. B.B. yields bead of copper, which
shines brightly while hot, but becomes covered,
on cooling, with black oxide. Dissolves easily
in nitric acid. It is mined when yielding but
one per cent, of copper.
CHALCOCITE. COPPER GLANCE.
Trimetric. In compound crystals, also mas-
sive. Color and streak, blackish to lead-gray,
often tarnished blue, and green. H.=2.5 3.
G.=5.5 5.8. Contains 79.8 per cent, copper;
and 20. 2 per cent, of sulphur. B.B. gives bead
of copper. 5.7 cubic feet weigh one ton.
B O R N I T E . VARIEGATED PYRITES.
Isometric. Generally massive. Color, copper-
red to pinchbeck-brown. Tarnishes rapidly.
Streak, grayish-black, slightly shining. Brittle.
H.=3. G.=5. Contains copper 55.58 per cent.;
iron, 16.36 per cent.; with sulphur, 28.6 percent.;
but varies greatly. B. B. fuses to magnetic
globule. Also called ERUBISCITE.
Dimetric. Generally in octohedral crystals,
52 COPPER ORES.
or massive. Color, brass-yellow. Streak, greenish-
black, dull. H.=3.5 4. G.=4.i5 4.3. Contains
34.6 per cent, of copper; 34.9 per cent, of sulphur;
and 30.5 per cent, of iron. Will not scratch glass.
B.B. gives brittle bead. 7.6 cubic feet weigh one
ton. Should carry not less than six per cent, of
metal, as mined, to make a profitable ore.
TETRAHEDRITE. GRAY COPPER ORE.
Isometric. In tetrahedral forms. Color, steel-
gray, to iron-black, with streak inclined to red.
H.=3 4.5. G.=4-5 5.12. Contains 91.9 per
cent, of copper, but varies greatly, sometimes
containing 10 per cent, to 30 per cent, of silver,
with usually iron, zinc, and antimony. A valu-
able ore, and easily worked. B.B. gives bead of
copper, or copper and silver. 6.6. cubic feet
weigh one ton. Sometimes contains platinum.
CUPRITE. RED COPPER ORE.
Isometric. In octahedrons, or massive, some-
times earthy. Color, red, of various dark shades.
Streak, brownish-red. Lustre, adamantine. Brittle.
H.=3.5 4. G. =5.85 6.6. Contains 88.8 per
cent, of copper, with 11.2 per cent, of oxygen.
B.B. gives bead of copper. 5 cubic feet weigh
CHRYSOCOLLA. THE SILICATE.
Color, bright green. Lustre, shining or earthy.
G.=2 2.4. Contains 30 per cent, to 35 per
TO RECOGNIZE COPPER ORES.
cent, of copper, with silica. A secondary deposit,
but sometimes valuable. B.B. with soda, gives
a bead of copper.
MALACHITE. GREEN CARBONATE.
This ore is polished, and used for inlaid work,
and even jewellery. Colors, blue or green, of
varying shades (deep blue to light green). Streak,
paler. Soft ore, dull in appearance. Contains
56 per cent, of copper; 14 per cent, of oxygen;
22 per cent, of carbonic acid ; and 8 per cent,
of water. Not important as a source of metal.
B.B. colors the flame green, and quickly yields
metallic copper. 8.2 cubic feet weigh one ton.
Color, deep blue. Sometimes transparent.
Streak, bluish. Brittle. H.=3.5 4.5. G.=
3.5 3.85. Used only for ornamental purposes.
Copper occurs, as arsenate, phosphate, vana-
date, and in very many combinations, other than
those described, which are the important ores to
Native copper is recognized at once. The
ores are distinguished mainly by lively colors,
and nearly all turn bright green on exposure,
and B.B. tinge the flame green. The value of a
find of any ore of copper depends on the quantity.
The native metal veins are the paying mines,
and always act on the compass. When the
54 SUDBURY NICKEL RANGE.
prospect of the deposit being large is satisfactory,
get an assay. The ores of copper may some-
times be shipped to advantage, after simple
concentration, and are readily purchased by
refiners. There are several other ores, of little
Copper ores are reduced, by smelting, after
concentration by hand or machines, and in the
case of sulphide ores, a preliminary process of
calcination, or roasting, is resorted to.
NICKED, AND COBAI/T.
NICKEL. Is a brilliant, white metal, which does
not tarnish, and is very ductile. It is used
chiefly as an alloy, and in plating.
COBALT, Is a lustrous, reddish-gray metal, very
brittle, and sometimes granular sometimes fi-
brous. Is not used as a metal, except in plating,
but mainly for the production of smalt, the blue
coloring matter. Neither are found native.
NICKELIFEROUS PYRRHOTITE. From this ore is
obtained much of the nickel of commerce. It
is identical with ordinary magnetic pyrites, save
that it carries the nickel. The nickel at Sudbury,
Ontario, is derived almost entirely, from this
ore, which is intimately mixed with copper
pyrites, and often contains besides the nickel;
cobalt; occasionally a little galena; silver, or
gold; and in at least one case, tin. Although
NICKEL AND COBALT ORES. 55
the average nickel contents of the ore, is less
than 2^- per cent., it runs as high as 30 per
cent., and even 40 per cent., in certain samples.
Anything over two per cent, in nickel will pay
to mine, if in large quantities. DIORITE (a
tough, hard, greenish to black colored, eruptive
rock); appears to be the true nickel-bearing rock
at Sudbury, and the deposits of ore already dis-
covered will supply all demands for the metal
which are likely to be made for many years,
while but a comparatively small section of the
nickel-bearing area has been properly prospected.
Other ores of nickel, of which some are found
in the Canada range, are :
L I N N A E I T E . SULPHIDE OF COBALT AND NICKEL.
Isometric. Generally massive. Color, pale
steel-gray, tarnishing copper-red. Streak, dark
gray. H.=5.5. G.=4-8 5. Contains when
pure, 58 per cent, of Cobalt, generally replaced
in part by nickel, with 42 per cent, of sulphur.
B.B. yields no metal, but colors borax bead
deep blue. 6.5 cubic feet weigh one ton.
MILLERITE. CAPILLARY PYRITES.
Rhombohedral. Usually in needle-like crys-
tals. Color, brass-yellow, to bronze-yellow, with
gray tarnish. Streak, bright. H.=3 3.5. G.=
4.6 5.65. Contains when pure ; 64.4 per cent,
of nickel, and 35.6 per cent, of sulphur. B.B.
yields no metal. 6.2 cubic feet weigh one ton.
56 NICKEL AND ARSENIC.
Isometric. Color, silver-white, with a reddish
tinge. Streak, grayish-black. Brittle. H.=5.5.
G.=6.63- Contains 45.2 per cent, of arsenic;
19.3 per cent, of sulphur; and 35.5 per cent, of
cobalt; often with iron and copper. B.B. gives
sulphur and arsenic fumes, with magnetic globule;
with borax, a cobalt-blue bead.
SMALTITE. COBALT GLANCE.
Isometric. Occurs in many forms, often
massive. Color, tin-white. Streak, dark gray.
H.=5.5 6. G.=6-4 7.2. Contains from 22
per cent, each of nickel, and cobalt, to 44 per
cent, of nickel alone, with 50 per cent, of arsenic,
and some iron. B.B. yields no metal. 4.7 cubic
feet weigh one ton.
N I CCO LITE. COPPER NICKEL,.
Hexagonal. Generally massive. Color, cop-
per-red. Streak, brownish-red. Lustre, metallic.
H.=5 5.5. G.=7-3 7.7. Contains 44 per cent,
nickel, and 56 per cent, of arsenic. B.B. yields
no metal. 4.2 cubic feet weigh one ton.
Color, steel-gray. Streak, blackish-gray. Lus-
tre, bright. H.=5.5. G.=5-6 6.9. Contains
35 per cent, of nickel, (sometimes more); 45 per
cent, of arsenic; and 20 per cent, of sulphur. 5
cubic feet weigh one ton.
SOME NEW NICKEL ORES.
GARNIERITE. NICKEL SILICATE.
Color, green. Streak, uncolored. Yields 6 to
8 per cent, of nickel. Chiefly mined in New
Caledonia; also found in Oregon, U.S.A.
The following new ores of nickel are reported
by Dr. Emmens, from Sudbury, Canada.
Massive, with platy structure. Color, bronze-
yellow. Streak, greyish-black. Lustre, metallic.
H.=3-5. G.=(approximately) 4.73. Contains
32.87 per cent, of nickel.
Color, pale bronze-yellow. Streak, black.
Lustre, metallic. Tarnishes rapidly on exposure.
H.=about 4. G.=about 3.73. Contains 6.10
per cent, of nickel. 8 cubic feet weigh one ton.
BLUEITE. JACK'S TIN.
Color, olive-gray to bronze. Lustre, metallic.
Streak, black. H.=3 3.5. G. 4.2. Non-
magnetic. Contains 3.5 per cent, of nickel.
Named after Mr. Archibald Blue, Director of
Ontario Bureau of Mines.
AS BO LITE. EARTHY COBAI/T.
Color, black or blue-black. Contains over
20 per cent, of cobalt oxide. Occurs as a bog
ore with manganese, iron and copper, and nickel.
There are many other ores of nickel and
58 SMELTING FURNACES.
cobalt, occurring rarely, or as products of other
and more abundant ores. All occur in the lower
formations, and cobalt ores, invariably, are found
in connection with nickel.
Compounds of nickel before the blowpipe
yield no metal, but leave a bead of borax, gray
with specks of reduced nickel.
Cobalt and nickel ores are first smelted into
a rich concentrate or matte, and then refined by
the use of acids ; in most cases. The ore as in
copper, is when a sulphide, first roasted to
expel the greater portion of the sulphur. The
refining, when done with acids is a slow and
costly process, but new methods are being suc-
cessfully adopted, and it is probable that this
will, in the near future, be done by electrolysis.
The mining and treating of these ores, re-
quires large capital, and great skill is necessary
to obtain economical results.
Smelting furnaces were formerly, built of
common brick, and lined with fire-brick, whether
blast furnaces, or reverberatory furnaces; but
the American water jacket furnace, is to-day
the ideal blast furnace, being built of cast iron,
wrought iron, or mild steel, protected by an
Outer wall, or jacket, of the same material,
through which a stream of water constantly
circulates, thus protecting the furnace, so that,
except for an accident, nothing compels a stop-
page, unless for a general overhauling of the
plant, at long intervals. The molten metal, and
slag, is allowed to run constantly, as fused, into
a water protected well, (on wheels, easily re-
moved without stopping the operation), and
thence, the metal, sinking by its greater gravity,
is tapped into moulds or pots, while the lighter
slag flows steadily from a spout at the top, and
is removed in iron pots on wheels, or sometimes
granulated by allowing it to drop into water.
By the introduction of a powerful blast, of
hot or cold air, a great saving. of fuel is effected,
and a much greater capacity obtained. A fur-
nace has lately been introduced which utilizes
the sulphur contained in pyritic ores as fuel, thus
making the ore smelt itself.
Is a silvery white metal, of high lustre, and
malleable, but not ductile, used in alloys, or as
a coating for other metals.
There are but two ores of tin, and these
occur usually in small veins of quartz. Tin is
also obtained from gravel, and is then called
Stream Tin. The veins occur in granite, gneiss,
and mica slate, and the associated minerals are
copper and iron pyrites. They are considered
worth working, when but a few inches wide.
STANNITE. BEMi METAI* ORE.
Massive, or in grains. Color, steel-gray to
iron-black. Streak, blackish. Brittle. H.==4.
G.=4-3 4.6. Contains 27 per cent, of tin ; 30
per cent, of sulphur; 30 per cent, of copper,
and 13 per cent, of iron. Found sparingly, hardly
to be called an ore of tin, and oftener worked
for copper. 7.2 cubic feet make one ton of ore.
CASSITERITE. TIN ORE.
Dimetric. Crystals often compounded. Also
massive, and in grains. Color, brown to black.
Streak, gray to brownish. Lustre, shining. H.
=6. 7. G.=6.4 7.1. Its high specific gravity
is characteristic. Contains 78.67 per cent, of
tin, and 21.33 per cent, of oxygen. B.B. with
soda gives bead of tin.
Looks like blende, or a dark garnet. Very
hard, will strike sparks with steel. 4.7 cubic
feet weigh one ton. Mined chiefly in Cornwall.
The Cornish mines were worked in Roman times,
and are now very deep. The tin veins in Da-
kota, U.S., are gold-bearing, and the formation
is quartzite, sandstone, and slate, overlying granite.
Phosphate minerals also, occur abundantly.
NATIVE. Rhombohedral. Generally massive.
Color and streak, silver white, with slight red
tinge. Tarnishes. May be hammered out a little
when heated, but is brittle when cold. H.=2
2.5. G. =9. 79. 8. B.B. fuses very easily, vapor-
izes, and leaves a dark yellow coating on charcoal,
which becomes paler on cooling. Pure Bismuth,
3.2 cubic feet weigh one ton. Found with ores
of silver, cobalt, and gold. Used chiefly as an
ingredient in fusible metal, also in medicine, and
as a pigment. Bismuth occurs in several other
ores. Found in same formations as copper. Oc-
curring in gneiss and other crystalline rocks.
This metal is white like tin, but so soft it
leaves a mark on paper. Used as a solder (with
tin), for aluminum. There is but one ore:
GREENOCKITE; THE SULPHIDE. In hexagonal
prisms. Color, light yellow. Lustre, brilliant;
nearly transparent. H.=3 3.5. G.=4.8 5.
B.B. fuses easily, and leaves, if fused on a piece
of plaster of paris, a dark brown, or reddish
brown deposit. 6.5 cubic feet weigh one ton.
Cadmium is often associated with zinc ores.
A brittle, bluish-white metal, crystalline, and
very lustrous on fresh broken surface. Used
with copper, to make brass; as roofing sheets;
and as paint; also to coat iron (galvanized.)
B.B. covers charcoal with zinc oxide, yellow
while hot, white when cold.
62 ZINC ORES.
Isometric. Generally massive; rarely fibrous.
Various colors. Streak, white to reddish brown.
Cleavage perfect. Waxy. Brittle. H.=3.5 4.
0.^=3.9 4.2. Contains 67 per cent, of zinc; 33
per cent, of sulphur. B.B. nearly infusible.
Looks like pieces of resin or dirty gum. 8 cubic
feet weigh one ton. Known as BLACK JACK.
ZINCITE. RED ZINC ORE.
Hexagonal. ' Usually in separate grains. Color,
bright red. Streak, orange. Lustre, brilliant;
translucent. Foliated like Mica. H.=4 4.5. G.
=5.4 5.7. Contains 80.3 per cent, of zinc; and
19.7 per cent, of oxygen. B.B. gives no bead,
but fuses with borax, and leaves a coating on coal.
5.8 cubic feet weigh one ton. A valuable zinc ore.
SMITHSONITE. CARBONATE OF ZINC.
Rhombohedral. Usually massive. Color, im-
pure white, green or brown. Streak, uncolored.
Lustre, stony. Translucent. Brittle. H.=5.
G.=4-3 4.45. Contains about 52 per cent, of
zinc, with often some Cadmium. B.B. infusible
alone, but with soda leaves a deposit on charcoal,
which moistened with nitrate of cobalt, turns
Trimetric. Usually massive. Color, white,
bluish, grayish, or brownish. Streak, uncolored,
Lustre, vitreous. Nearly transparent. Brittle.
H.=4-5 5. G.=3-i6 3.9. Contains 67.5 per
cent, of zinc oxide; 25 per cent, of silica; and
7.5 per cent, of water. B.B. almost infusible.
Yields no metal, but acts same as Smithsonite.
10 cubic feet weigh one ton.
Zinc ores occur in rocks of all ages, gene-
rally associated with lead ores, and often with
\copper, iron, tin and silver. There are various
>res of zinc not of much value, as a source of
the metal. It is often a detrimental substance
in gold and silver mines, making the ore difficult,
to treat. The metal is obtained by distillation
in retorts of various forms. The furnaces, and
accessories, require considerable capital, and
NATIVE. Found in the metallic state in meteor-
ites, and occasionally, in grains in some rocks,
but never in commercial quantity, unless we
except, some masses of a ton weight found in
PYRITE. NON-MAGNETIC ORE.
Isometric. Usually in cubes, or massive.
Color, brass yellow. Streak, brownish-black.
Lustre, of crystals, brilliant. Brittle. H.=6
6.5. G.=4.8 5.1. B.B. yields no metal, but a
magnetic globule. Contains 46.7 per cent, of
64 SULPHIDE IRON ORES.
iron; and 53.3 per cent, of sulphur, which latter
constitutes the valuable part of this ore, being
used to obtain the sulphuric acid of commerce.
Will scratch glass. 6.5 cubic feet equal one ton.
PYRRHOTITE. MAGNETIC PYRITES.
Hexagonal. Generally massive. Color, be-
tween bronze-yellow and copper-red. Streak,
grayish-black. Often with dark tarnish. H.=3-5
4.5. G.=4.4 4.65. B.B. yields no metal,
but changes to the red oxide. Contains 60.5 per
cent, of iron; 39.5 per cent, of sulphur. Tarnish-
'es easily. Valuable as an ore of nickel. (See
under head of Nickel.) Also used to make green
vitrol. 7.1 cubic feet equal one ton.
Trimetric. Also occurs massive. Color, silver-
white. Streak, grayish-black. Lustre, shining.
Brittle. H.=5.5 6. G.=6-3. B.B. yields no
metal, but fumes of arsenic, which have the odor
of garlic, and may be perceived on striking the
ore smartly with a hammer. 5 cubic feet equal
one ton. Contains 46 per cent, of arsenic (which
is its valuable constituent); 19.6 per cent, of sul-
phur; and 34.4 per cent, of iron. Sometimes it is
rich in gold, but until recently this could not be
profitably extracted, owing to the difficulty of
getting rid of the arsenic, which prevented its
successful treatment. Now, however, with lately
HEMATITE IRON ORES. 65
perfected processes, it is possible to treat the
most arsenical ores economically, and prospectors
should have mispickel ores examined for gold.
None of the above ores are used for the making
of iron and steel.
HEMATITE. SPECULAR IRON ORE.
Under this and following heads are included
most of the ores from which pig iron and steel
are made. Varieties are: micaceous, red hema-
tite, red chalk, clay iron stone. Rhombohedral,
massive, granular, sometimes micaceous, also
earthy. Color, red, steel-gray or iron-black. Streak,
cherry-red, or reddish brown. Hardness varies;
from 6.5 down to earthy ores. Contains 70 per
cent, of metallic iron; (when pure); and 30 per
cent, of oxygen. B.B. infusible. The streak will
identify this ore under all its forms. The darker
the ore the redder the streak. Not magnetic
before heating unless it contains magnetite. 6.6
cubic feet equal one ton.
A Bessemer ore, (by which is meant, an ore
suitable for the manufacture of steel by the
Bessemer process, now chiefly employed) should
be practically free from sulphur, and phosphorus,
and entirely free from titanic acid. The higher
the percentage of metallic iron the more valuable
the ore, anything over 60 per cent, being high
66 THE MAGNETIC NEEDLE.
MAGNETITE. MAGNETIC IRON ORE.
Isometric. Massive ; also granular. Color,
iron-black. Streak, black. H.=5.5 6,5. G.=
5 5.1. Contains (when pure) 72.4 per cent, of
metallic iron; and 27.6 per cent, of oxygen.
B.B. infusible. 6.4 cubic feet equal one ton.
Strongly magnetic, so much so that deposits are
frequently discovered by the variation of the
compass. If your compass wavers, and inclines
to point very much east or west, look for iron
along the nearest contact. By means of a dip-
needle (a magnetic needle suspended to swing
freely up and down between two pivots, instead of
round, on one, like the compass;) the ore deposit
may be found when no exposure exists, but a
very magnetic ore will cause the needle to turn
completely over when in small quantities, and
in some cases it is very misleading. An expert
in the use of the needle can get surprisingly
accurate knowledge of a deposit, even when
covered by many feet of barren rock. An attrac-
tion confined to a few feet, is apt to be caused
by a boulder. If it continues along the strike it
indicates a lode. A continuous attraction is
better evidence of value than a strong one. Some-
times found, as a black sand. Often in quartz
veins, distributed in small pieces through the vein,
but not in commercially valuable quantity, and
such veins seldom contain any ore of value.
NATURAL COMPASS. 67
LODESTONE. Some specimens are natural mag-
nets. Place a piece on a light chip of wood
floating in a basin of water, and it will turn
north and south, being a natural compass.
Isometric; also massive. Color, iron -black.
Streak, reddish-brown. Brittle. H.=5.5 6.5.
G.=4-5 5.1. Usually magnetic, but less so than
magnetite. Formula, like magnetite, but with
part of iron replaced by zinc and manganese.
B.B. with soda on charcoal, gives zinc coating.
Occurs in large deposits.
L I M O N I T E . BROWN HEMATITE.
Massive; with smooth surface, or spongy.
Color, dark brown to ochre-yellow. Streak, light
brown to dull yellow. H.=5 5.5. G.=3.6 4.
Various forms; from a hard clay ironstone, to
yellow and brown ochre. Same as hematite, but
contains 14 per cent, of water. 8.4 cubic feet
equal one ton of ore.
This occurs in low ground, and is of con-
siderable value; furnishing large quantities of
iron, though chiefly used, by local furnaces, and
for fluxing more difficult ores. Contains, when
pure, about two-thirds its weight of iron. Occurs
in beds a few feet deep, spread over larger or
68 HOW IRON IS OBTAINED.
SIDE RITE. SPATHIC IRON.
Rhombohedral. Usually massive, and foliated.
Color, light grayish to brownish-red. Streak,
imcolored. H.=3. 4.5. G.=3.7 3.9. Contains
62.1 per cent, of iron protoxide. Often with
manganese. B.B. infusible, but becomes mag-
netic. 8.4 cubic feet equal one ton. Used largely
for the manufacture of iron and steel, and found
in many rocks, gneiss, mica schist, and clayslate.
CHROMITE. CHROMIC IROX.
Isometric. Usually massive, with rough sur-
face. Color, iron-black to brownish-black. Streak,
dark brown. Lustre, submetallic or dull. H.=
5.5. G.=4.3 4.6. Slightly magnetic. B.B.
fusible with borax. Nearly the, same as mag-
netite, but contains Chromium. 7 cubic feet
equal one ton. Used largely as paint.
Iron occurs in nature in endless combinations,
but the above ores include all of interest (as
iron) to commerce. B.B. all iron ores become
magnetic, and some contain manganese and
zinc, as mentioned above.
The metal iron is obtained from its oxide
ores, by smelting in blast furnaces, with lime-
stone as a flux, the plants being of large capacity,
and requiring very large capital for their suc-
cessful operation. Steel, is made chiefly by the
Bessemer process of forcing air upward through
the molten metal, in open crucibles, no further
fuel being required. Coke is the usual fuel used
in smelting, but large quantities of iron are
made with charcoal, and for some purposes, the
iron so made, is superior to any other. In any
case a mixture of ores is required.
The value of a deposit depends, after quality
is proved, on its being of great extent, and
within easy reach of shipping facilities. An iron
mine filling all the above conditions, is possibly,
the best investment to be got. (See also, Iron
Rocks page 19.)
Is never used as a metal in the pure state,
but is used chiefly as a source of oxygen. It
is largely used in the arts for bleaching, clearing
glass, and many other purposes. It is never
found in the metallic state. B.B. the ores yield
no metal, but color a borax bead violet.
Trimetric. Massive, sometimes fibrous. Col-
or, iron-black. Streak, black. H.=2 2.5 G.=
4.8. Contains 63.2 per cent, of manganese; 36.8
per cent, of oxygen. 6.6 cubic feet equal one
ton. This ore is now used as a so.urce of oxygen,
for illuminating purposes.
Occurs massive. Color, black or greenish-
black. Streak, reddish-black and shining. H.
5 6. G. 4 4.4. Contains nearly same amount
of manganese as pyrolusite, but varies, and
contains some baryta or potassa. 7.6 cubic feet
equal one ton.
WAD. BOG ORE.
Massive, or earthy. Color, and streak, black
or brownish-black. H.=i 6. G.=3 4. Earthy,
soils the fingers. 9.1 cubic feet equal one ton.
Used as a paint, and sometimes consists of ir-
regular globules in beds, a foot or more in depth,
mixed with soil.
RHODOCHROSITE. MANGANESE CARBONATE.
Rhombohedral. Color, rose-red. Cleaves like
Calcite. H. 3.5 4.5. G. 3.4 3.7. Contains
61.4 per cent, of manganese protoxide ; and 38.6
per cent, of carbonic acid, with part of manganese
often replaced by calcium, magnesium, or iron.
The ores are found in same formations, and
under same conditions as iron, and also contain-
ing silver, which makes a very valuable ore, and
one easily worked.
MOLYBDENITE; THE SULPHIDE. Hexagonal, in
plates, or masses foliated in thin plates like
tinfoil. Color and streak, lead-gray, the streak
with green tinge. Lustre, bright on fresh cleav-
age. H.=i 1.5. G.=4-5 4.8. B.B. infusible,
but gives fumes of sulphur. 6.9 cubic feet of
pure molybdenite equal one ton.
This ore is used but little, chiefly in the
preparation of a blue color, and is sometimes
mistaken for graphite (blacklead), which it re-
sembles, but from which it is easily distinguished,
as graphite leaves a black mark on paper, while
molybdenite has a greenish-black streak, which
is best seen by drawing a piece across a china
or other plate. Occurs in crystalline rocks, but
sparingly; also with lead and copper ores. Con-
tains 59 per cent, of molybdenum; and 41 per
cent, of sulphur.
Hexagonal. Usually foliated, also massive.
Color, black to steel-gray. Streak, as a common
lead pencil. Lustre, metallic. H.=i 2. G.=
2.25 2.27. Soils the fingers, and feels greasy.
Contains 95 to 99 per cent, of carbon. B.B.
infusible. Not touched by acids. 13.9 cubic feet
of pure graphite equal one ton. Largely used
in the manufacture of pencils, crucibles, stove
polish, and lubricants for heavy machinery. Also
in electric lighting, plating, etc.
Commonly called blacklead. Found chiefly
in crystalline limestone, also in gneiss, and mica
schist, and generally forms only a small percent-
age of the ore, distributed evenly throughout the
gangue in specks; or in masses of all sizes. A
valuable mineral when pure. Such impurities
as lime, and iron, destroy its value. Test for
lime with hydrochloric acid.
NATIVE. Hexagonal. Commonly massive. Color,
and streak, tin-white. Brittle. H.=2 2.5. G.
= 6.i 6.3. B.B. fuses, tinges the flame green,
and volatilizes. 5.4 cubic feet equal one ton.
Also obtained in combination with silver, and
lead ores, which is the chief source of supply.
Certain rare metals mentioned below, are
quoted at high prices in price lists of chemicals,
and people are led to believe that they exist as
mines. Some are found native, but the cause
of their being seldom used, and high-priced is
in most cases the great expense attending their
extraction, and reduction, to the metallic state,
or their scarcity. Those usually mentioned are
not of much interest, except to chemists. There
is but a very limited market for any metal so
priced, even if a quantity should be found.
BARIUM exists in nature as baryta (or heavy spar)
a sulphate, (described in part V.) MAGNESIUM
is a very light, tough, white metal, never found
native. PALLADIUM is a malleable, steel-gray
metal, inclining to white, found native, with some
platinum, and iridium, generally in small grains,
in gold diggings, and occasionally native gold
is alloyed with palladium. RHODIUM is found as
an alloy with gold. IRIDOSMINE is a compound
of IRIDIUM and OSMIUM, occurring usually in
small flat grains. H.=6.y. G.=ig.5 21. Slightly
malleable, and used for points to gold pens.
SODIUM is the metallic base of common salt,
(Chloride of Sodium). URANIUM is the metallic
base of pitchblende; never found native. (See
There are many other metals known only to
chemists, or rarely used, whether native or arti-
ficially extracted. None are of interest to com-
OTHER MINERALS OF COMMERCIAL VALUE.
We have now, briefly described, the chief
ores from which metals of commerce are extract-
ed, and as such, of greatest interest to the general
Is a metal of great promise, being only one-
third as heavy as iron, of great tensile strength
(26,000 Bounds against 16,500 pounds for cast
iron, per inch) and hardness, a beautiful white
color, with no taste or odor, not liable to tarnish
or corrode, and taking a polish which is not ex-
celled by any other metal, yet it is not of special
interest to prospectors, being the base of clays,
and therefore, the most abundant of all metals.
Its price depends purely on the discovery of
cheaper methods of extraction. A cubic foot
weighs but 163 pounds, while iron weighs 487,
and gold 1206 pounds per cubic foot.
The most valuable source of aluminium, at
present (and likely to remain the most valuable
until new processes of extraction are developed)
is an ore called:
BAUXITE; This mineral is a soft granular, com-
pact, iron-stained clay, and the color is white to
brown or reddish, or sometimes bluish. G.=
2.55. It is a hydrated sesqui-oxide of aluminium
and iron, soluble in sulphuric acid. A find of
Occurs of many colors, blue, red, etc. H.=
g, or next the diamond. G.=3.g 4.1. An oxide
When in clear blue crystals forms the gem
called Sapphire. When crystals are red they
are called Rubies. (See under Precious Stones.)
Found chiefly in mica schist, and granular
The variety having bluish-gray and blackish
colors, is called EMERY. Used very extensively,
as a polishing material in the shape of powder.
Distinguished at once by its hardness.
ALUM SHALE. The alum of commerce is obtain-
ed from shale, or some rock containing alunogen
or other alum bearing mineral, by heating the
rock in lumps to produce aluminium sulphate.
This is then lixiviated in stone cisterns, the lye
concentrated by evaporation, and potassium added
to the last solution. On cooling the alum crys-
COMMON FELDSPAR. ORTHOCI.ASE.
Monoclinic. Usually in thick prisms, and
massive, granular, or fine grained. Not striated.
76 CHINA CLAY.
Color, white or flesh-red, sometimes greenish-
white. Translucent to opaque. B.B. fuses with
difficulty. Not touched by acids. Moonstone
and Sunstone are varieties. Contains 64.7 per
cent, of silica; 18.4 per cent, of aluminium; and
16.9 per cent, of potash. Largely used in the
manufacture of chinaware.
CRYOLITE. This is a peculiar, translucent, snow-
white compound. H.=2.5. G.=2.g5 3. Con-
tains 12.8 per cent, of aluminium; 32.8 per cent,
of sodium; and 54.4 per cent, of fluorine. Used
as a source of aluminium, and its salts; soda ;
and an opaque white glass. Melts easily in the
flame of a candle.
KAOLIN. CHINA CLAY.
This is a clay derived from the decomposition
of feldspar, and used in the manufacture of fine
chinaware. A good deposit of this clay, easily
accessible, and free of grit or iron, is a find of
value. Soapy to the touch. Insoluble in acids.
It is one of the essentials in a good clay for
any purpose, but is rarely met with in a pure
condition fit for the above use.
To try the quality of the clay, wet a little
in a white dish and observe that in a good
article, it does not turn darker. Also observe
that it is not "gritty," but an analysis is needed
to test it, and even that will not fully prove its
value. B.B. will turn from white to brown if it
FIRE-CLAY. Pure, unctuous clay, with about 45
to 60 per cent, of silica, and free, or almost free
from soda, potash, or alkaline earth. Found
generally, underlying coal seams.
POTTERS CLAY. Must be plastic, and free from
iron, and usually contains some free silica.
MARL. Clay containing much carbonate of lime;
from 40 to 50 per cent. Sometimes contains
many shells, or fragments of shells. Used as a
SHALE. Is an indurated compressed clay, and
is often ground and extensively used for bricks,
tile, etc. For vitrified bricks, a clay, or shale
is required with a high fusion point, but capable
of incipient fusion, to an extent which will close
up the pores, so as to completely prevent the
absorption of water, before the material abso-
Color, white or creamy, sometimes bluish-
green. Compact, of a fine earthy texture, with
a smooth feel. H.=2 2.5. Floats on water.
Contains 60.8 per cent, of silica; 27.1 per cent,
of magnesia; and 12.1 per cent, of water. B.B.
infusible, gives much water, and a pink color, with
78 DERBYSHIRE SPAR.
cobalt solution. Occurs in masses in stratified
earth deposits. Used for pipe-bowls.
MANGANESE SPAR. FOWI.ERITE.
Color, reddish (usually deep flesh-red), also
brown, greenish, or yellowish, sometimes black
on surface. Streak, uncolored. Lustre, stony;
transparent to opaque. H.=5.5 6.5. G.=3-4
3.7. Contains 45.9 per cent, of silica; and 54.1
per cent, of manganese protoxide. B.B. becomes
dark brown, and with borax, bead is deep violet
when hot, and reddish brown when cold. Looks
like feldspar, but is heavier. Used in making
a violet colored glass, and a colored glaze on
stoneware. Takes a high polish, and makes a
handsome ornamental stone.
Occurs commonly in crystals, or compact.
In bright colors, resembles some gems, but is
distinguished by its easy cleavage and softness.
Colors are white, or light green, purple or clear
yellow, also rarely rose-red or sky-blue. Trans-
parent or translucent. H.=4. G. 3 3.25.
Brittle. Consists of 48.7 per cent, of Fluorine;
and 51.3 per cent, of calcium. B.B. decrepitates
and fuses to an enamel.
When massive receives a high polish, and
is made into vases, candlesticks, etc., and sold
under the name of DERBYSHIRE SPAR. Hydro-
fluoric acid, with which glass is etched, is ob-
tained from fluorspar; also used as a flux for
copper and other ores, hence the name fluor.
APATITE. PHOSPHATE OF LIME.
Hexagonal. Commonly in six-sided prisms.
Color, green of various shades, sometimes yellow,
blue, and reddish or brownish. Streak, always
white. Generally occurs in crystals, but some-
times massive. H.=5. G.=3 3.25. Brittle.
Lustre, stony. 10 cubic feet weigh one ton.
B.B. moistened with sulphuric acid tinges the
flame bluish-green, without the acid, reddish-
yellow. Occurs in pyroxene ; crystalline lime-
stone ; hornblende gneiss; and mica schist.
Used extensively as a fertilizer. Distinguish-
ed from feldspar by trial of hardness.
GYPSUM. LAND PLASTER.
This is a hydrous sulphate of Lime. It is used
on land, for agricultural purposes, and as a plaster
for walls. H.=i.5 2. G.=2.33. B.B. becomes
white at once and exfoliates, then fuses. When
pure white it is called ALABASTER; when trans-
parent SELENITE; when fibrous SATIN SPAR; when
burned and ground it is PLASTER OF PARIS. Found
in thick seams in limestone and clay beds.
Crystalline limestone, or dolomite, susceptible
of a fine polish, is marble. Colors are: white,
pink, red, mottled, yellow, bronze, and black.
Massive. Serpentine is sometimes called marble.
Is a compact, fine grained limestone. If free
from grit, and other impurities, makes a valuable
An impure limestone, containing silica and
alumina, which on being burned affords a cement
which will set under water. Contains 15 to 25
per cent, of clay.
BARITE. HEAVY SPAR.
Color, white, and yellowish, or reddish. Trans-
parent or translucent. Lustre, vitreous or pearly.
H,=2.5 3.5. G.=4-3 4.7. B.B. fuses, and im-
parts a green tinge to flame. After fusion with
soda, stains silver coin black. When ground, is
used to adulterate white lead. Found in veins,
generally with lead, as part of the gangue. 7.1
cubic feet weigh one ton.
CELESTITE. STRONTIUM SULPHATE.
Trimetric. In rhombic crystals, with distinct
cleavage. Color, clear white, tinged with blue,
or reddish. Lustre, vitreous. Brittle. Nearly
transparent. H.=3 3.5. G.=3.g 4. B. B.
decrepitates, tinging flame bright red, and fuses.
ROCK SALT. 8 1
With soda blackens silver coin. Contains 56.4
per cent, of strontia which is used to obtain the
red color in fireworks. Found in sandstone and
limestone rocks. Is sometimes fibrous.
ROCK SALT. CHLORIDE OF SODIUM.
Colorless, or colored (by accidental impurities,
such as iron,) red, brown, pale blue, yellow, or
green. Streak, white. H.=2 2.5. G.=2 2.25.
Tastes strongly saline. Contains 39.30 per cent,
of sodium; and 60.66 per cent, of chlorine, but
most samples contain clay, and a little lime and
magnesia. B.B. flies to pieces, and melts into
a bead which colors the flame yellow. It is
obtained by sinking wells, from which the brine
is pumped and evaporated in large pans, or by
mining, the same as for any other ore.
This mineral is a phosphate containing cerium,
lanthanum, yttrium, didymium and THORIUM,
which latter is now used in making an improved
gaslight. Color, brown to brownish-red. Sub-
transparent to nearly opaque. Lustre, vitreous
to resinous. Brittle. H.=5. G. 4.8 5.1. Occurs
in crystals. It is mined, the same as placer
gold, from sand or gravel beds. B.B. colors the
flame green when moistened with sulphuric acid.
Trimetric. Foliated or massive. Color, light
green or shining white. Sometimes dark green.
H.=i.i5. G.=2.5 2.8. A silicate of magnesia.
It is easily cut. The greenish colored massive
variety of talc.
POTSTONE: is impure soapstone of dark color
and slaty structure. FRENCH CHALK is a milk-
white kind. Soft and greasy to the touch. B.B.
FOLIATED TALC. Pure foliated talc of white, or
Soapstone is cut with a saw, and turned in
a lathe, without difficulty. Used for gas-jets, and
for various purposes. Takes a fine polish after
being heated. Also used to adulterate soap ;
as a face powder ; and as a filling for paper.
Occurs generally as a massive rock, but occa-
sionally in fibrous form, as :
ASBESTOS. Color, green or white. Fibrous. A
hydrous silicate of magnesia. May be spun into
fine threads, by separating the fibres into a silky
mass, and then twisting it, with the fingers.
Used to cover steam-pipes, etc., in the form of
rough cloth, and for many purposes requiring
COMMON MICA. 83
an incombustible material. Occurs in seams from
half an inch to several inches in width, running
parallel, or crossing one another, the width of
each seam making the length of the fibre.
ACTING-LITE. The long-bladed greenish variety.
Used for fireproof material, chiefly roofing, with
tar, or asphalt.
MUSCOVITE. COMMON MICA.
Monoclinic. In crystals, splitting easily into
sheets, or in scales. Color, white, green, brown
to black. Transparent, tough and elastic. H.=:
2 2.5. G.=2.7. 3. This mineral is extensively
used in sheets, and ground. In sheets it is used
for stoves, standing a great heat ; and for insu-
lating purposes in electrical plants. Ground ; it
is used as a lubricant, and in making ornament-
al and fire-proof paint. The pure white in large
sheets (3x3 and upward) is most valuable, but
the amber is as good value for electrical pur-
poses. When spotted it is of little or no value.
B.B. whitens, but does not fuse except on thin
edges. Light colored micas are mostly Musco-
vite ; black, Biotite.
LITHIA MICA. L.EPIDOMTE.
Color, rose-red, and lilac to white. In small
plates, and aggregations of scales. Contains 2
to 5 per cent, of the metal Lithium.
LITHIUM. Is a soft, whitish, metal, of very light
specific gravity, and considerable tenacity. It
is very fusible. Used in an alloy with tin, and
lead, as a solder. Lithia is also found as a
phosphate, in :
TRIPHYLITE. A mineral having H.=5. G.=
3.50. Streak, grayish-white, and lustre, sub-
resinous. B.B. any mineral containing lithia
colors the flame a beautiful deep crimson.
This acid is found as the mineralizing agent
of many metallic ores, and is chiefly obtained
for commercial purposes from :
NATIVE SULPHUR. Color and streak, sulphur-
yellow, or sometimes orange-yellow. Lustre, res-
inous. Transparent to translucent. Brittle. H.=
1.5 to 2.5. G.=2.O7. Burns with a blue flame
and sulphurous odor. Pure sulphur, or contami-
nated with clay, or pitch. Found in beds of
gypsum, or the vicinity of volcanoes, active or
extinct. Purified, it is the sulphur of commerce,
which is also obtained largely from copper and
iron pyrites, from which ores
SULPHURIC ACID. is also manufactured (the non-
magnetic ores being preferred for this purpose),
making veins of these ores valuable. It is known
as Oil of Vitriol. The uses of sulphur for gun-
powder, blacking, and medicine are well known.
frequently found com-
the valuable mineral
lead, etc., and is very
B. may be detected by
sulphuric acid, when
It is a white, waxy
and very poisonous.
g matches, and various
This is also an acid,
bined with lime, forming
APATITE; also with copper,
injurious in iron ores. B.
moistening the assay with
the flame is tinged green,
substance, when refined,
Used in the arts; for makin
This is a common acid in connection with
ores of economic value, and occurs:
NATIVE. with silver, and lead ores. Color, and
streak, tin-white, usually tarnished gray. Brittle-
H. = 3.5. G.=5-65 5.95. B.B. volatilizes be-
fore fusing, with the odor of garlic, and burns with
pale blue flame. Also occurs combined with sul-
REALGAR. of red color. H. = i.5 2. G. 3.4
3.6 containing 29.9% of sulphur.
ORPIMENT. Bright golden-yellow. H. = i.5 2.
G.=3.4 3.5. having 39% of sulphur.
Obtained chiefly from mispickel, (Arsenopy-
rite) for commercial purposes. Very poisonous.
It is an unwelcome ingredient in many gold,
silver, and other ores, making their treatment
very difficult, and often unprofitable.
ANTHRACITE. STONE COAL.
Color, black with high lustre. Opaque. Brittle
and sectile. H.=o.5 2.5. G.=i.2 1.80. Car-
bon, with some oxygen, and hydrogen, and often
more or less clay or slate. The seams run from
an inch to forty feet in thickness. Believed to
be of vegetable origin. Never found commercially
in crystalline rocks, but is mostly confined to
the upper rocks, known as Carboniferous.
BITUMINOUS. SOFT COAL.
Color, black. G.=not more than 1.5. Softer
than anthracite. Used to make coke and gas,
and varies much in the amount of tar, gas, or
oil it yields.
BROWN COAL. LIGNITE.
Color, brownish-black. Like bituminous coal
in appearance but, contains 15 to 20 per cent, of
oxygen. Sometimes shows the structure of the
wood from which it was formed. It will not
JET. is a variety of coal, but is hard, of a dead
black color, taking a fine polish, and much used
Large quantities of different colored dyes are
obtained from coal. It is said, that dye from one
pound of coal will color 5,000 yards of cotton cloth.
PETROLEUM. ASPHALT. 87
Gas can be found only in stratified rocks,
generally in what is called Trenton Limestone,
and the gas rock must be covered by considerable
thickness of a close impermeable capping, of some
other rock, or clay, or no body of gas of any
extent will be met with, while however abund-
ant, the supply is but temporary and will event-
ually be exhausted in each locality. No surface
indications are found, except small gasflows which
indicate that the gas, escaping as formed, does
not exist in the locality in commercial quantity.
The crude oil is found like natural gas; only
in the higher rocks. It cannot be found in meta-
morphic rocks or any crystalline formation. The
common coal oil of commerce, is the volatile pro-
duct of the distillation of Petroleum, the lubricat-
ing oils, are the heavy oils left behind, and after-
wards more or less purified, and perhaps 10%
(or i Ib. to the gallon) of Paraffin wax, is the
residue of value. This wax is the
OZOKERITE of commerce ; originally found in
a natural state.
ASPHALT. is mineral Pitch, used for roofing and
street paving. Color, black to blackish-brown.
H.=(when solid) i 2. G.=i 2. melts at 90 F.
and is very inflammable.
88 MINERAL WOOL.
This substance is not a mineral, but simply
vegetable matter in a state of decomposition.
Color brown to black. Spongy. G.=o.5 i.
When dried contains 15% to 25% of water. It
is found in beds, or in bogs. It forms a valuable
fuel when dried and strongly compressed, fit for
locomotives, or to smelt iron ores.
MINERAL WOOL so called is not a natural, but
an artificial product. It is made by converting
scoria and certain slags, while in a melted
condition into a fibrous state, and is really glass in
its nature, but fibrous, soft and inelastic. Used
as a preventive of fire and frost, and to deaden
sound; in buildings.
The oxides are used in painting porcelain,
giving a fine orange color in the enameling fire,
and a black color when baked. The chief ore is:
Color, grayish to brownish or velvet-black.
Lustre, submetallic or dull. Streak, black. Opa-
que. H.=5.5. G.=6.47. Contains 75 to 87 per
cent, of uranium oxides, with silica, lead, iron, and
other impurities. B.B. infusible alone. Dis-
solves slowly in nitric acid when powdered.
Natural paints, are those minerals which when
powdered and mixed with oil, will adhere to a
smooth surface, and in drying form an imperme-
able skin, or covering.
RED iRon paint; is powdered hematite iron ore
mixed with oil.
YELLOW IRON paint; is made from the brown
BLACK IRON paint; is made from magnetite.
UMBER; by mixing the iron paints, with powder-
ed oxide of manganese.
RED COPPER paint; is powdered red oxide of
GREEN COPPER paint; is powdered silicate of
ZINC WHITE; is oxide of zinc, artificially made,
by large costly plants.
WHITE LEAD; is carbonate of lead, also artificial-
ly prepared, the natural ores not being
pure enough. This also is a costly process.
RED LEAD; is oxide of lead, and has to be care-
fully made by experts.
VERMILLION ; is the natural ore of mercury.
SLATE colored paints, are made from powdered,
fine-grained slates, ground in oil.
GRAPHITE makes a fine shiny, fireproof paint.
THE OCHRES ; are fine clays, with brown or
red iron in them, which have been naturally
washed, and ground, and sifted, to an extent
that cannot be profitably imitated by art.
INFUSORIAL EARTH. This polishing earth is
formed from very minute siliceous shells, and
besides its use for polishing metals, is mixed
with nitro-glycerine to make Dynamite, the pow-
erful explosive used extensively in all heavy rock
MINERAL RESIN. Is yellow in color to whitish.
Lustre, resinous. Transparent to trans-
lucent. H.=2 2.5. G.=i.i8. Be-
comes electric when rubbed. Is
a resin, but mainly one that resists
all solvents called Succinite. It is
supposed to be a vegetable resin,
which has been altered by sulphur
while imbedded. Generally found
along sea-coasts, in masses from
pea size to as large as a man's
head. It is used to make
ornamental necklaces of beads,
-\ * . \^^^=.^^ pipes, cigar hol-
Stones of the most valuable kinds EMERALDS,
SAPPHIRES, RUBIES, GARNETS, OPALS, and per-
haps DIAMONDS, will yet be found in many sec-
tions in America, where they have not hitherto
been discovered, or their existence even suspected.
The fact is, that very few prospectors know any-
thing at all about precious stones or crystals, and
in most cases are not aware that Crystals or
handsome specimens of minerals, have a value
entirely apart from that due them as the source
of the metals.
Very few people have any idea of the beauty
brought out, by polishing even very common stones
In an idle hour on the bank of stream or lake,
amuse yourself by trying the hardness, of any
clear pebbles, or crystals you may find there.
When you come across one that is not scratched
by the corundum in your case, which represents
number nine in the scale of hardness, or one which
being scratched by number nine, will also scratch
it in turn, put it in your pocket, and send it by
mail to a Lapidary or dealer in mineral specimens.
This costs almost nothing and you may one
day, be surprised by the result, and find your-
self well paid for your trouble. Again, when you
92 SIZE OF GEMS.
run across a handsome cluster of Quartz, or
other Crystals, do likewise. Gems are discovered
by carefully examining the various stones found in
panning, or washing gold gravel.
Sometimes the expenses of a long trip, may be
recovered by the collecting of a few good crystals
or unusual specimens of minerals, not of commer-
cial value other than as Cabinet Specimens.
Precious stones are sold at so much a carat,
which is a conventional weight, divided into
four grains, which are a little lighter than Troy
grains. The term is derived from a dried bean
used as a weight in Africa, for weighing gold.
An approximate idea of the size of the various
gems, may be had by reference to their varying
specific gravity in comparison with this table of
the approximate size of Diamonds, which is as
follows, a stone weighing
^-y of a carat is about -^ inch in diameter
I a n 3 a u
1 " " * "
" " " "
i n n i a u
<? it it 6 n
Diamonds are worth from $30 to $150 per carat.
Emeralds " " " $10 " $75 "
Rubies ^ " " $8 " $90
Precious stones when polished are worth from
IOC. tO $IO.OO.
They occur in the drift where the country
rocks are eruptive. Transparency and hardness
tell their value.
Isometric. Faces of crystals often curved.
Color, pure, colorless, or white (the most valu-
able) also yellow, orange, green, blue, brown and
black. Lustre, adamantine. Transparent, unless
dark colored. H.=io. G.=3-5 Pure Carbon.
The hardest substance known.
The Diamond does not sparkle in the rough,
as found, or until polished. The best test is the
hardness, and its becoming electric, when rubbed
before polishing, this stone always showing posi-
tive electricity. Other gems are negative unless
polished. B.B. burns.
Look for dull grayish white pebbles, having
a worn octohedral form pointed at opposite ends.
Generally found in gravel diggings, but the
Diamond bearing rock, in Brazil appears to be,
a species of mica schist filled with quartz in
grains, called Itacolumyte, while at the Kim-
berly mines, in South Africa, it is a magnesian
conglomerate with silica as a base. The matrix;
known to the miners as the "blue," consists for
the first 100 feet of soft friable yellow shale, al-
tered from a slate-blue colored crystalline rock,
which pulverizes on exposure to the air. The
encasing rocks of the "chimney" are first a red-
dish sand from 2 inches to 2 feet, then a few
feet of calcareous Tufa, of recent date and still
forming. Then a yellow to pinkish shale for 35 to
50 feet, succeeded by a black carbonaceous shale
which extends to 260 285 feet from the surface
when it gives way, to an un stratified basalt trap
depth unknown which encircles the whole mine
or mines. It is an amygdaloidal Dolerite with
much agate. The "blue" contains many thin
veins of calcspar, and mica, pyrite, and hornblende
occur throughout, The total area is eleven acres.
The "blue" is allowed to lie in the open air
until pulverulent, when it is carefully washed and
the stones picked out. The less valuable are used
as drills, and in powder as polishing material.
The Diamond is cut by abrasion with its own
powder. A cutter has succeeded lately in cut-
ing a finger ring out of one perfect stone, f of an
inch in diameter.
Rhombohedral. Usually in six-sided prisms
but very irregular. Blue is the true color,
but the stone occurs ; red ; yellow ; green violet
and hairbrown. Transparent or translucent.
H.=g or next the Diamond. G.=4 4.16. B.B.
remains unaltered. Pure Alumina. Dark colors
TURQUOISE. - EMERALD. 95
are called EMERY, (which occurs, granular in
appearance,) and is used as a polishing powder.
Test for hardness. It scratches quartz very
easily. Commonly found in gravel washings, and
in mica schist, and gneiss, with crystalline lime-
stone, as the usual matrix.
A very valuable gem, the red colored being
most highly prized. One specimen weighs 18^
pounds Troy, and is transparent, without a flaw.
In opaque masses, without cleavage. Color,
bluish-green. Lustre, waxy. H.=6. G.=2.6
2.8. B.B. becomes brown, and tinges the flame
green, but does not fuse. Soluble in hydro-
chloric acid, and moistened with the acid tinges
the flame green for a moment, owing to the
copper present. Is highly valued, but closely
imitated by art, though the artificial gems are
much softer. Occurs in veins.
Color, green, sometimes bluish or yellowish.
Streak, uncolored. Transparent, or translucent.
Brittle. H.=y.^ 8. 0.^2.7. The rich green
is the true emerald. The bluish-green are called
AQUAMARINE. Colored by chromium when pure
green. Not touched by acids. B.B. infusible,
but becomes clouded. One specimen weighs
96 TOPAZ. OPAL.
nearly seventeen pounds. Occurs in granite, and
gneiss, but the finest crystals are found in dolo-
Trimetric. In rhombic prisms, with perfect
cleavage. Color, pale yellow, white, reddish
or greenish blue. Transparent to translucent.
H.=8. G.=3-5. Consists of alumina and silica.
B.B. infusible. Not affected by acids. Found
both in loose crystals or pebbles, and in veins
in metamorphic rocks.
When used in jewelry the color is often altered
by heat. Becomes electric on heating. The
quartz crystals are known as False Topaz. (See
also under Quartz.)
PRECIOUS OPAL. Compact or earthy. Opaque
white or bluish-white, with beautiful play of
colors. H.=about 6. G=about 2 . FIRE
OPAL; has yellow, and bright fire-red reflections.
Easily scratched by quartz. B.B. infusible.
Composition like quartz, but usuall} 7 contains two
to ten per cent, of water. Some stones are good
natural barometers, becoming clouded on the
approach of stormy weather, and clearing, and
showing brighter reflections, as the weather be-
Isometric. Also occurs massive, or granular.
Color, deep red to cinnamon, also brown, black,
green, and white. Transparent to opaque. Lustre,
vitreous. H.=6.5 7.5. G.=3.i 4.3. B. B.
fuses easily. When transparent, precious; if
opaque, common. Of frequent occurence in mica
schist and gneiss, but fine clear crystals are not
common, and are highly valued. There are many
varieties. Its crystalline form and fusibility dis-
Dimetric. Usually in crystals, but also granu-
lar. Color, red to brown or gray, yellow, and
white. Streak, uncolored. Lustre, adamantine.
H.=7.5. G-^=4 4.8, Transparent red speci-
mens are called HYACINTH, Sometimes heated
in a crucible, with lime, when it loses its color,
and is then sold as diamond. Occurs in granite,
gneiss, and some other igneous rocks. Dis-
tinguished by its square prismatic form, and
great specific gravity.
Quartz is rhombohedral in crystallization,
occurring usually in six-sided prisms more or
less modified, also compact or granular.
Crystals are colorless or yellow, amethystine,
rose, smoky, and other tints. Transparent to
98 QUARTZ GEMS.
opaque, and sometimes the colors are banded
red, green, blue, and brown to black. H.=7.
G.=2.5 to 2.8. Contains nominally; 53.33 per
cent, of oxygen; and 46.67 per cent, of silicon,
but often contains iron, clay, and other minerals.
B.B. infusible alone, but fusible with soda. The
following are all varieties of quartz.
ROCK CRYSTAL. Pure pellucid quartz. The
"whitestone" of jewellers, often used for
spectacles and optical instruments.
AMETHYST. Purple, or bluish violet ; of great
ROSE QUARTZ. Pink or rose-colored. Seldom
FALSE TOPAZ. Light yellow, clear crystals. Often
cut and sold for Topaz.
CAIRNGORM STONE. Simply smoky Quartz.
PRASE. Leek green, massive quartz.
AVENTURINE. Common quartz, spangled with
CHALCEDONY. Translucent, massive,- with waxy
CHRYSOPRASE. Apple-green chalcedony.
CARNELIAN. Bright red chalcedony, of rich tint.
Much used for seals.
SARD. Deep brownish-red chalcedony, blood-red
by transmitted light.
AGATE. Variegated chalcedony. Beautiful when
A DISPLACED VEIN.
Moss AGATE. Contains moss-like delineations,
caused by iron oxide.
ONYX. Agate having the colors in flat horizon-
tal layers. Usually light brown and opaque
white. It is the material used for Cameos.
CAT'S EYE. Greenish-gray, translucent chalce-
dony, with a peculiar opalescence when
polished with spheroidal surface, owing
to inclusions of asbestos.
BLOODSTONE; or HELIOTROPE. Deep green, with
spots of red. A variety of Jasper.
SILICIFIED WOOD. Petrified wood, quartz having
replaced the wood.
FLECHES D'AMOUR. (Love's Arrows). Quartz
with rutile (or oxide of titanium) penetrating
in every direction like fine hairs.
SECTION SHOWING BANDED VEIN ; DISPLACED BY A FAULT.
This cut shows a vein with pay-streak which has been thrown
to one side, in such a manner that if worked by a slope it would be
lost altogether. A study of the formation will enable the miner to
decide in which direction to go, without any lost labor.
REJECTING That there are more valuable de-
SAMPLES. posits of mineral passed over un-
recognized, in each and every season, than, are
discovered, I believe to be a fact, at least as
regards new mining territory. To old mining
districts, where the geology, and mineralogy, have
been thoroughly worked out, and where the com-
munity in general, is familiar with the only ores
existing in the territory, this of course does not
apply. The very first requisite to success in
prospecting, is to become familiar with all tlie
various ores and rocks by sight. Study each ore
until you can recognize it at once.
A GOOD The average prospector is familiar
RTTLE. with at most, the ores of but two or
three metals, and will often pass by, the very
thing which would yield the best return. This
comes from going to work on a wrong principle.
A prospector should never reject samples of
veins, simply because he does not recognize the
ore, as valuable. On the contrary, he should
procure samples of every lode, or deposit, which
he does not know positively, to be of no value,
and submit them to a competent mineralogist
for examination. This will at any rate serve
one good purpose the prospector will learn what
the substance is, and thus add to his knowledge.
HOW TO ^ n selecting samples for assay, break
SAMPLE, small pieces from as many different
parts of the deposit as possible. One sample
however large, is of little value, as it will almost
invariably be either too rich or too poor, and
will therefore be misleading. Collect three to
five pounds of iron, galena, gold, or silver ore,
and all quartz or vein matter, thus giving the
assayer some chance to properly sample, and
always retain a portion.
COLLECTING ^ n taking samples, paint a number
SAMPLES. on each and every sample on the
spot, and at the time, and enter exact particulars
of each in the blank columns ruled for the
purpose, at the end of this volume; where sample
was got, part of vein taken from, depth, date,
with other items thought of, so that if necessary,
an affidavit may be made regarding any given
sample, at any time in the future; and keep
duplicate samples, which in time make a collec-
tion of value.
When sending samples for assay to
a chemist, many people expect an
opinion of the ore, or some further information.
As a rule no chemist will do more, than simply
test for the metal or other ingredient, asked for
IO2 OBJECT IN ASSAYING.
by the sender. The chemist has no knowledge
of the purpose for which the information, or
analysis, is wanted, and is seldom competent to
give an opinion, as to the value of the property
as a mine. That is not his business, and even
when a competent business man, and miner-
he will not commit himself; as he is simply paid
as a chemist for the assays made, and not for
an opinion as an expert metallurgist or miner.
Every mining expert must have a knowledge
of assaying no chemist need have any knowledge
OBJECT IN The owner, or anyone, interested
ASSAYING, in a mine requires, not only to know
the amount of metal in the ore, but more espe-
cially the amount necessary to make the mine
pay that is the vital point and that depends
on the amount of metal which can be taken out
of the ore, when treated on a commercial scale;
on the cost of mining, and of treatment (which
varies in almost every case); the cost of ship-
ment ; and many other things. A working test
of a few tons of ore, taken as mined, should
follow the assays, which in their proper place
are valuable in proportion to the skill of the
WHERE TO 1 choosing a route for a prospect-
PROSPECT. ing trip, be guided to a considerable
extent by the strike of the country rock. Follow
along a granite ridge; if such runs through the
country; in a zig-zag fashion, continually crossing
and re-crossing any contact of two formations.
Linger to carefully search along either side of
any fault, or disturbance, especially if caused
by an eruptive dyke, and notice any sudden
change in the strike of the rock, or appearance
of the timber. Try all the streams and gravel
bars for gold, stream tin, etc., not forgetting that
dry placers (or old river beds) contain as much
This section shows an old river bed covered by a trap overflow,
which forced the river to take a new course, along the line of a "fault."
A A Earth. E New Channel. O O covered gold-bearing gravel.
.V .V The formation. F Fault. 5 5 Trap overflow.
metal as the present streams, and that old gravel
beds, are sometimes covered by a thick capping
of rock, caused by an overflow of trap or lavaJ
and if found, follow up the course until you
reach the source of the gravel, and the veins.
Use the pan at every opportunity, and study
all material obtained by washing, carefully saving
any unknown substance.
Many ores are found, such as lead veins, or
nickeliferous pyrrhotite, by observing a peculiar
red stain throughout the earth or drift, and ore
is often got, where no exposure or other indica-
tion exists, save stains, and discolorations on
the bare rock, or other slight results of oxida-
tion. Lead veins, sometimes cause a series of
hollows, or ''sinks," running in a straight line.
The above section shows a common occurrence of Galena Veins,
oo Surface Clay. NN Limestone. M main bodies of ore. c a
Pocket, s the Lode.
After coming across a vein, first fol-
low the outcrop, on the strike, as far
as possible, and where it can be traced for a
distance, spend some time in choosing the most
favorable places for opening; where the out-
cropping appears widest, and the ore most
abundant. Begin by making shallow cuts across
the vein, at these places, and after selecting the
points which look the most likely, and where
the vein seems to carry the greatest quantity
of metal, sink small shafts to the depth of about
eight or ten feet. Then have assays made; and
if satisfactory, continue the shafts until a suffi-
cient depth is reached to admit of cross-cutting.
This being done; and the results being favorable,
and further sinking and stripping showing ore
to exist in quantity; the property will be ready
for examination as a prospect, by experts on
behalf of capitalists; or on behalf of the owners;
to obtain an authoritative report, to place the pro-
perty on the market in good form ; or lay out
the mine, to the best advantage.
Do not consider the money spent in preparing
the prospect for the market, as an expense to
be avoided. It is necessary to show capital
the best possible evidence of value, as an in-
ducement to inspect the goods offered, and then
the sale will depend on the property being shown
to advantage, by developing as much ore as
possible, stripping the vein on the surface, etc.,
in strict conformity with the report and plans
shown to the investor, and on which the expense
of the examination was undertaken.
BEAVER SILVER MINE, PORT ARTHUR, CANADA.
SCALE: 400 feet=i inch.
This cut shows a successful Silver Mine, and also how a mine
should be laid out. o Trap. D Slates, c Earth.
PROSPECTING I n sinking prospect shafts, or in
WORK. doing any other work of a pros-
pecting character, do not put any money into
plant, machinery, or buildings, until absolutely
necessary. Do the work as long as possible by
hand labor. Ordinarily a shaft may be put
down the first forty or fifty feet, with the aid
of a common windlass, (which should be pro-
vided with a good brake) and the second fifty
feet a horse-whim, will do all the hoisting, unless
the shaft be very wet in which case a light
steam hoist, with pump attached ; is the most
economical. Steam or air drills should not be
purchased, until the mine is a proved producer,
unless deep working and extensive exploring
underground is for other reasons decided upon.
LUCK VS. ECONOMY.
The main essential to success in prospecting,
even more than in other lines of business, is
steady perseverance, backed by common sense.
Nevertheless success does not often come, without
a close study of how rocks are formed, how the
ores were deposited, and how they came in the
positions we now find them. It has occasionally
happened, and doubtless will occasionally happen,
that a man born under a lucky star, will by
sheer good fortune, stumble on a rich mine,
while it may be considered certain, that the
same steady application, as would be shown in
any other calling, will ensure much larger rewards
when devoted to mining ; and this applies equally
to those, who, engaged in different business, have
opportunities to secure interests in discoveries
made by others ; nevertheless, it should always
be remembered, that one find in several only,
is valuable, and one or two disappointments
need not discourage further attempts. Economy
should be the watchword in all prospecting work,
but there is no economy in working with poor
tools, or men, no matter how cheaply they may
be bought. This applies, perhaps with greater
force, to the development of new enterprises.
More experience, more general knowledge, sound
judgment and foresight, are requisite before the
conditions and difficulties to be overcome, are
fully known, than afterwards; when good man-
agement alone is needed. It is very easy to
make errors in laying out a mine, which it often
costs large sums to rectify.
HARD LUCK" MINE.
MORAL: Use a Core Drill.
A good pocket lens, - $ 2.00
A dipneedle, 10.00
A good compass, (one showing dip is the best) 2.50
A set of fin. steel, one of 12 in., two of
18 in. and one of 36 in.,
A 6 Ib. striking hammer,
A good light shovel and pick,
A light axe, -
A small prospecting pick, with handle di-
vided into inches and half inches,
A miner's pan, of wood or iron,
A few pounds of dynamite, (Eclipse) with
A jack-knife, with one blade magnetized,
HANDLING SAMPLES. IOQ
A case of small samples of ores for com-
parison, - - 10.00
A scale for trying hardness, - 2.00
A vial of mercury, and small steel pestle
and mortar, - 4.00
A tubeof vermillion, for numbering samples,
and brush, .50
A small bottle of nitric, and one of hydro-
chloric acid, - i.oo
A number of small cotton or other bags to
carry samples of crystals, etc., in, to
keep them from abrasion, .25
And last, but not least, a simple blowpipe
Archibald Geikie says: "A knowledge of
rocks can never be gained from instructions given
in books, but must be acquired from actual hand-
ling of the rocks themselves."
PROSPECTORS' ! would advise every prospector
SAMPLES. to buy from a dealer in mineral
samples, a set of the minerals comprising the
scale of hardness, also a prospector's case of
samples of ores for comparison, most of which
may be very small pieces. Nothing else can
take the place of a known sample of the mineral,
which can also be compared with samples of the
vein on the spot, while the cost of a representa-
tive case of ores, is but trifling, being from ten
to fifteen dollars for case of about one hundred
IIO COST OF RAILWAY.
specimens, covering both ores and rocks pretty
fully, and this should be made the nucleus of
a private collection, which in time may be valu-
able, if the record of each specimen be faithfully
MEANS OF Every mile between a railway, or
ACCESS. point accessible to large vessels, and
a discovery of mineral means a reduction in
the value of the property, and an added difficulty
in finding a purchaser, and effecting a sale.
This is too frequently lost sight of in selecting
a field. It costs from $5,000 to $10,000 per
mile in the average mining country, to build a
railroad, therefore, unless there be strong reasons
to the contrary, try and make your "search"
or venture, as near one means of access or the
other as possible, and you will save much vexa-
tious delay, and disappointment, while the chances
of success will not be lessened.
SELLING A Mining properties are usually sold
PROSPECT, outright, or leased on royalty. In
the former case it is usual to give an option at a
fixed price, for a certain definite period, during
which time the purchaser is allowed to make
the fullest investigation, and if on a prospect,
to develop the property at his own expense, and
to remove such an amount of ore as to allow
a thorough test to be made. In the case of a
lease, the lessor agrees to mine a minimum
DESCRIBING A PROSPECT. Ill
imount of ore during each year, and to pay a
certain sum, or royalty, for each ton mined. An
option to purchase for a fixed sum, is sometimes
made a condition in the lease. Occasionally an
owner will arrange to allow a plant to be erected
and the mine worked, under proper conditions,
on receiving a fixed percentage of the gross
HOW TO 1 describing a find to possible pur-
DESCRIBE. chasers, be careful to have any
margin between the description and the facts, in
favor of the property; never say the show is
"about half an acre wide," or "a rifle shot
long." It depends on who loads the rifle. It
is just as easy to measure the outcrop, if only
by pacing it, and to describe it as so many
feet, or so many paces. The description should
state : the title ; the kind of country ; the supply
of timber and water ; the geology, as well as
possible ; the trail, and means of approach ; and
the surface show ; giving the dip ; and strike ;
the facilities for working; and sites for buildings;
the assays; and should be accompanied by average
samples. Where possible the amount of ore "in
sight" should be stated. The term "in sight"
being used when an ore body is developed, by
shafts, undercuttings, etc., to allow of measure-
ment. Never cause a customer disappointment
by describing a prospect as a mine.
112 THE DIAMOND DRILL.
SECURING I n these days of concentration, when
CAPITAL. all mines are carried on, with the
use of expensive machinery, and costly plant,
on a large scale, necessitating the employment
of large capital, a connection with some one in
touch with monied men, is absolutely necessary,
to enable a prospector or owner of a prospect,
to realize on the property.
There is only one way to obtain such a con-
nection, and be assured of fair treatment, that
is: by convincing the capitalist, or his represent-
ative, that the vendor is a man of his word, and
not in the habit of exaggerating or misstating
plain facts, that when he say a foot, he means
twelve inches, and not six inches. The aim of
a prospector or vendor of a prospect, should be
to place it before buyers in the best possible
shape to induce investigation. An authoritative
report by a well known unbiassed outsider, is
the quickest way to reach this end.
CORE Sometimes, in exploiting a vein, or
DRILLS, other deposit of mineral, the Core
Drill offers certain advantages over shafts, or
tunnels, and drifts.
In exploring small, or irregular veins the
work of the Core Drill is not reliable. When
the conditions allow it fair play, it is the most
economical method of testing an ore body, saving
time, and expense in underground work, and
A NEW CORE DRILL. 113
boring smooth, straight holes, in any direction,
from vertical to horizontal. Drills are made of
varying capacity, being driven by hand, steam,
or horse power, and drilling from 500 to 4,000
feet in depth.
This Drill consists of,
a hollow circular bit,
set both on inside and
outside edge, with in-
ferior diamonds, which
do the cutting, as the
drill revolves. A con-
tinuous core remains in
the tube, which is broken off and drawn up, a
section at a time ; thus giving an actual sample
of the strata passed through, at any and every
A new core drill is being successfully used
in California, which does not require diamonds.
It consists of different lengths of iron pipe (like
gas pipe) screwed together, and revolved at great
speed under pressure, small chilled steel shot
being fed into the hole at the top. These become
imbedded in the soft iron of the pipe, forming
a rough rasp, which wears the hardest rock. It
will bore either a perpendicular hole, or one on
the incline, following the dip of the ore and is
said to be a very economical prospecting tool.
The safest, and generally speaking, the most
HOW ORES ARE SOLD.
satisfactory way, is to contract with an ex-
perienced . driller, for the work required, at a
certain price per foot.
I n many cases, when capital is not
conveniently obtained, and where it
is necessary that a property be developed, be-
fore being offered for sale ; it is a matter of
moment to sell any ore which may be mined, in
the course of such development. It sometimes
happens that sufficient ore can be obtained, to
pay for the necessary expense incurred. This
is a matter requiring considerable judgment and
discretion, to decide, before entering on the work,
WHEN TO MINE.
depending on a return from the ore. Ore can
be sold by the single carload, or by the ton,
but at the minimum price. A hint as to the
data required, by purchasers of ore, may not be
out of place. Ores, and mattes, are usually sold
at a price per unit, a minimum percentage of
metal being usually fixed, below which grading
the ore must not run. Send samples which will
fairly represent the ore pile, taking care that the
average will not be too high, and a complete
analysis of the ore. State as nearly as possible,
how much ore you will be able to ship, confining
the amount to what you have available at the
time, and a purchaser may be found, who will
advance a part of the value on the bills of lading
(often a consideration to the shipper) for gold,
silver, copper, lead and some other ores.
After sufficient work has been done,
to absolutely prove that a paying
deposit exists, and not till then, should mining
begin. The exploration should expose sufficient
ore, to pay for all plant and development work,
and a profit, which usually means a couple of
years supply, for the necessary reduction works.
Further development should be pushed so as to
keep this reserve, constantly ahead. The ore
should be thoroughly tested, to guarantee the
above value, by working tests, at the nearest
refining works, before deciding on a process of
Il6 SELECTING THE WRONG PROCESS.
treatment. A mining enterprise conducted in
this way, involves no further risk, than the loss
of the expenses of preliminary investigation, pro-
vided it receives the same careful management,
and honest supervision, as all business ventures
SELECTING THE Selecting the wrong process for
TREATMENT. treating a given ore, is possibly,
one of the greatest causes of failure, in starting
a new mining enterprise. This is an art in
itself. Take for example gold ores. One ore is
suited best by free-milling; another requires free-
milling and concentration; the next concentration
only, followed by smelting, or perhaps chlorina-
tion; a fourth works best by smelting direct.
Some ores need fine grinding; and on others,
coarse grinding is more economical, while occa-
sionally it pays best, to lose as much as one-third
of the gold in the tailings. The cost of mining
gold varies from twentv-five cents to eighty cents
for each dollar obtained, in large mills, working
under different local conditions.
This point can be decided at little cost by
one having the special knowledge and ability in
this direction, and no company should decide on
the purchase of plant or the use of a process,
until the best advice in the market is had on
this point. Not a dollar should be spent on
experimenting with new ideas or costly plant,
FARMER VS. MINER.
which although thoroughly tested at some other
mine, may not suit the ores under consideration.
If a company be formed and money invested in a
mining venture, it should be used for mining
only, and the diverting of funds to any other
purpose should be strictly tabooed.
MINING The risk should be confined to the
BISKS. natural, legitimate, and unavoidable
hazard, incidental to mining, as to every other
business. The popular idea, that mining is in it-
self, more risky, and speculative, than other lines
of enterprise, is a fallacy. The farmer takes
greater chances on every crop he plants. If the
season be too dry or too wet, or the grasshoppers
too numerous; he gets no return. If the weather
be propitious, it is equally so all round, and the
extra crops make low prices, and thus his profit
goes. The legitimate miner takes one risk only
that of proving his mine. He takes no heed of the
weather, and his crop is metal, and metal is
money. What has brought mining into disre-
pute, is incompetence, and dishonesty. Mining
requires special skill, adaptability and experience,
on the part of those actually operating, and that
the general public is not familiar with the busi-
ness gives unusual opportunity to the unscru-
pulous, but the day of "salted" mines is passing.
The profession of Mining Engineering is occupied
by men of knowledge, ability, and probity, and
Il8 SELECTING A MANAGER.
the "crook," and the man who used a pretended
familiarity with " Science" to foist his bogus
claims to a knowledge of mining, on an innocent
public, are rapidly being "frozen out," as the
ignorance of the business public regarding mining
Neither should a man undertake to mine
himself, or under his own supervision, unless he
is competent and experienced, arid so in selecting
a manager. The manager should have a record
as being skilful and economical, and must in
addition be an all round business man. Such
a man gets a good price for his services, and
in mining the owner or owners can afford to
pay it, and cannot afford to employ "cheap"
men, or machines.
MINING There is one peculiar feature, connect -
STOCKS. ed with the business of mining invest-
ment. Go to a business man and show him
any other enterprise in which, with a medium
amount of risk, he is assured of a profit of twenty
or thirty per cent., and he will immediately give
it his most serious consideration. Ask the same
man to invest in a mining venture, and show
him a profit of fifty per cent, per annum. In
almost every case, he will look for more, and
also expect the return of his entire capital, in
addition, within a very short time, and further;
that same man, even though he be known as one of
the most cautious, and conservative, of investors,
will buy stock in a mine he knows nothing
about, at ten or twenty cents on the dollar,
without even asking what amount the mine is
capitalized at: after investing possibly thousands
of dollars, he will not go a day's journey to
inspect the property and see where his money
is being put, or send anyoue else to examine
into the matter on his private account. As often
as not, he has no personal acquaintance with
the men he entrusts with his money, and does
not even look up their record or standing. Apply
the same methods, figuratively, to another busi-
ness; and it will be seen at once, why so many
mines, which might be worked to pay handsome
dividends, on a capital of say one hundred thou-
sand dollars are "stocked" for millions, and
not worked at all. An unscrupulous company
buys a good mine, and expends perhaps, fifty
thousand dollars, on purchase, development, and
"floating" same. They capitalize the thing, at
perhaps three million dollars, and offer stock, at
say, twenty cents a dollar share. They need only
sell half a million shares, to make 100 per cent.
profit, and still own five sixth's interest in the
mine. No other business, but railroad manipu-
lation, or "sugar" trusts, can show such profits.
No legitimate business can be expected of such
a company, and apparently the business public
I2O JOINT STOCK COMPANIES.
is to blame, because, they will treat mining in-
vestments, in a manner directly the opposite, of
that accorded to any other offered.
On the other hand, it is not intended to de-
preciate, the popular method of obtaining capital
for opening and developing mines. On the
contrary, the advantages of joint stock companies
over individual efforts, are many. Operations
can be carried on, on a much larger scale, and
thus, better economic results may be obtained,
while the benefits are distributed amongst the
many, instead of going to a few, to the advan-
tage of the community at large. When failure
is incurred, the loss also, is borne better when
each member has but a small individual interest.
Given the same cautious investigation and care-
ful scrutiny before investing, mining stocks are
shown, by statistics extending over long periods,
to pay better and more constant dividends, than
those of any other class, and investments in
development mining stock, in honest and legiti-
mate mining concerns, are likely to prove more
profitable than shares in companies organized to
operate in any other direction.
MEASURES OF ORES, EARTH, ETC.
13 cubic feet of ordinary gold, or silver
ore in mine, equal i short ton
20 cubic feet of broken quartz, equal... i " "
1 8 cubic feet of gravel in bank, " ...i " "
27 cubic feet of gravel, when dry, " ...i " "
25 cubic feet of sand, equal i " "
14 cubic feet of chalk, equal i " "
1 8 cubic feet of marl, equal i " *
18 cubic feet of earth, in bank, equal...! " "
27 cubic feet of earth, when dry, " ...i " "
17 cubic feet of clay, equal i " "
44.8 cubic feet of bituminous coal, bro-
ken, equal i long ton
42.3 cubic feet of anthracite, broken,
equal i " "
123 cubic feet of charcoal, equal i " "
70.9 cubic feet of coke, equal i " "
The number of cubic feet of ore in a ton, is
got by ascertaining the specific gravity; water
being taken as the standard. One cubic foot of
water weighs 62^ Ibs. therefore, 32 cubic feet
weigh one ton ( 2,000 Ibs. ) The specific gravity
of iron ore is, say 4 therefore; 8 cubic feet equal
one ton, or in other words, one fourth of 32, the
bulk of water.
122 USEFUL TABLES.
RELATIVE WEIGHT OF METALS.
Cast Iron being the Unit.
Cast Iron i ,000
Wrought Iron i ,072
Copper Rolled 1,226
Tin i ,01 5
Steel i ,086
Gold 2 , 702
Silver i ,448
Mercury i ,880
WEIGHTS AND VOLUMES OF ORDINARY METALS.
" in sheets 512.6
" in wire 524.16
Copper, cast 543.625
" plates 547.25 .
Iron, cast 450.437
" plates 486.75
" wrought bars 481.5
Lead, cast 79-5
" rolled 711.75
Mercury (60 degrees) 848.7487
" soft 489.562
Zinc, cast 488.812
' ' rolled . 440.437
WATER REQUIRED FOR QUARTZ MILLING.
For boiler; 7^ gallons per H.P. per hour. For
each stamp; 72 gallons per hour. For each pan;
1 20 gallons per hour. For each settler; 60 gal-
lons per hour. If the water be run into settling
tanks it may be used again, less considerable
loss; say about twenty-five per cent.
A MINER'S INCH
will discharge 2.250 cubic feet of water; equal
to about 17,000 gallons in 24 hours. A gallon
of water weighs (U.S. standard) 8^ pounds, and
contains 231 cubic inches.
TO CALCULATE THE WATER POWER TO BE
GOT FROM A STREAM:
multiply the depth by the width, and this by
the rate per minute, (which can be found by
floating chips, a measured distance, and timing
them.) This gives the number of cubic feet, or
volume per minute, Multiply the volume by 62^
(the weight of one cubic foot), and multiply this
by the height of fall. Divide the total result by
33,000 (pounds) and the result, is the horse
power of a turbine wheel. In practise only 80
per cent, of this power may be relied on. A
124 USEFUL TABLES.
horse power, is a power which will raise 33,000
pounds, one foot, in one minute.
TO TEMPER METAL.
To temper drill steel cool down to 430 de-
grees to 450 degrees, which is respectively ; a
faint yellow; and a pale straw color.
To temper knives for wood, soft metals, etc.
cool down to 510 degrees to 537 degrees. A
brown, with purple spots a purple.
To temper axes, cold chisels, etc. cool down
to 550 to 560 degrees. Dark blue to bright blue.
To temper saws, springs, etc. cool down to
600. Grayish blue, nearly black.
In steel heated higher than this, the effect
of the hardening process is lost. A handful of
salt in the water vessel, will aid in obtaining a
TO SOLDER OR WELD, USE:
For iron or steel; borax or sal-ammoniac.
For tinned iron; resin, or chloride of zinc. For
copper and brass; sal-ammoniac, or chloride of
zinc. For zinc; chloride of zinc. For lead;
tallow or resin. For lead and tin pipes; resin
and sweet oil.
TO CASE HARDEN.
Heat the article, after polishing, to a bright
red, rub with prussiate of potash, allow to cool
to dull red, and immerse in water.
CEMENT FOR CAST IRON.
Two ounces sal-ammoniac, one ounce Sulphur,
and 16 ounces cast-iron filings. Mix well in a
mortar, and keep dry. When using, take one
part of this powder to 20 parts clear iron filings,
make into stiff paste with water, and it is ready
CEMENT FOR FACE JOINTS.
Equal parts red and white lead, with linseed
TABLE OF MELTING POINT OF METALS.
Water boils at 212 degrees F.
Ice becomes fluid at 32, degrees F.
Mercury 38.2 degrees F.
Sulphur 230 " "
Antimony 842 " "
Bronze 1652 " "
Silver 1873 " "
Cast Iron 2786 " "
Bar Iron 2732 3012 " "
Platinum 4532 " "
Glass 2377 " "
126 USEFUL TABLES.
ALLOYS IN COMMON USE.
Babbit Metal Tin, 89; Copper, 3. 7; Antimony, 7. 3.
Yellow Brass Copper, 66; Zinc, 34.
Gun Metal, Valves, etc. Copper, go; Tin, 10.
White Brass Copper, 10; Zinc, 80; Tin, 10.
German Silver Copper, 33.3; Zinc, 33.4;
Church Bells Copper, 80; Zinc, 5.6; Tin, 10.1;
Gongs Copper, 81.6; Tin, 18.4.
Lathe Bushes Copper 80; Tin, 20.
Bearings--Copper, 87.5; Tin, 12.5.
Muntz Metal Copper, 60; Zinc, 40.
Sheathing Plates Copper, 56; Zinc, 44.
WEIGHT AND VALUE OF WOOD AS FUEL.
Cord air-dried Hickory, or Hard Maple; weighs
4,500 Ibs., and is equal to 2,000 Ibs. coal.
Cord air dried White Oak, weighs 3850 Ibs.,
and is equal to 1715 Ibs. of coal.
Cord air-dried Beech, Red or Black Oak,
weighs 3250 Ibs., and is equal to 1450 Ibs. of coal.
Cord air-dried Poplar, Chestnut, or Elm, weighs
2350 Ibs., and is equal to 1050 Ibs, of coal.
Cord air-dried average Pine, weighs about
2,000 Ibs., and is equal to 925 Ibs. of coal.
We may assume from the above ; that 2^
Ibs. of dry wood, is about equal to one pound
of soft coal, no matter whether the wood be pine
USEFUL TABLES. 127
or maple, so long as it is dry. A good boiler
should evaporate 7 to 10 Ibs. of water per Ib.
of good coal. In practice, only 75 per cent, of
this is attained.
APPROXIMATE COST OF MINING AND TREATING
Varying with Local Conditions.
Gold and Silver ore, to mine, from $1.00 to $5.00
Freemilling.. -. " i.oo " 2.00
Concentration " .50 " 3.00
Treatment of concentrates, " 3.00 " 15.00
Roasting-milling " 8.00 " 15.00
Chlorination " 3.00 " 12.00
Smelting to matte " 5.00" 30.00
Copper ore costs to mine " .50 " 2.50
Smelting to matte " 3.00" " 6.00
Smelting to black copper... " 7.00 " 10.00
Nickel-copper ores :
Smelting to matte " 2.50" 5.00
Refining matte " 100.00 " 200.00
Silver-lead ores :
Smelting to base bullion " 5.00 " 10.00
Iron ores cost to mine....; " .25 " 1.50
Smeltingtopig,perton of iron, " 10.00 " 14.00
A breaker with capacity of say 20 tons per
diem, (crushing to nut size) costs about $250,
and requires about 4 H.P.
A mill or pulverizer, crushing 20 tons per
day, costs about $1,500, and requires about 8 H.P.
128 USEFUL TABLES.
A concentrating plant, treating about 20 tons
per day, costs about $2,000, and uses about 2 H.P.
An amalgamator, treating about 20 tons per
day, will cost about $1,500.
A small prospecting plant, complete for free-
milling gold ore, will cost about $500.
Three men drilling ten hours by hand, will
make 15 to 16 feet on an average.
A steam drill will make an average of about
45 feet ; an air drill, 50 to 55 feet per day.
GLOSSARY OF MINING TERMS.
Adit. A tunnel into a hill.
Aerolites. Masses of metallic, or stony matter
which have fallen on the earth from other
Albite. Soda Feldspar. Triclinic.
Alkaline. Containing an alkali; as soda, or
Alliaceous. The odor of garlic; given off by
Alluvium. Gravel diggings. Drift.
Alloy. A compound of metals.
Amalgam. Mercury combined with gold or other
Amorphous. Without form.
Anorthite. Lime Feldspar.
Arastra. A Mexican mill for grinding ore, by
dragging large stones around in a circular
pit, stone lined, and having quicksilver in
the bottom with the ore.
Arenaceous. Sandy; applied to rocks.
Argillaceous. Containing clay. The odor of wet
Artesian Wells. Are holes bored through solid
strata, and often overflow.
Assaying. Smelting samples to test the ore.
130 GLOSSARY OF MINING TERMS.
A uriferous. Gold-bearing.
Azoic. Without life.
Back. The ground between a drift and the sur-
Battery. A set of stamps.
Bed. A layer of rock.
Bedrock. The solid rock under a clay or gravel
Belt. A range of metal-bearing rocks.
Bituminous. Carrying mineral pitch.
Bitter Spar. Crystal Dolomite.
Black-Jack. Dark zinc blende.
Blacksand. The last dirt left in panning gold.
Magnetic iron sand.
Boulder. Any rounded loose rock.
Brace. The collar at the mouth of a shaft.
Breast. The face, or front, at which a miner
Buddie. The tub used to wash slimes.
Bunch. A rich pocket of ore.
Cage. The lift in a mine.
Cam. The curved pin which raises the stamp
in a mill.
Calcareous. Containing Carbonate of Lime.
Calcining. Burning, or roasting ores.
Canon. A deep ravine or gorge, with precipitous
Caprock. Any rock which covers an ore bed.
GLOSSARY OF MINING TERMS. 13!
Carbonate. Applied to oxides, when carbonic
acid is united.
Casing. The sheathing, or parting between the
wall, and vein.
Chlorides. Combinations of chlorine with metals.
Choke-damp. Carbonic acid gas.
Chute. An incline having depth without horizon-
Coke. The residue after the bitumen is driven
out of coal.
Clastic. Fra^mental. When a rock is composed
Cleavage. The property of splitting in one di-
Color. Any show, or speck of gold in the pan.
Contact Veins. Veins running between two for-
Cradle. A wooden trough on rockers, for washing
Creep. The sinking of rock from stoping ore.
Cross Course. Any vein crossing the one worked.
Cross Cut. A level run across the vein.
Dead Work. Removing dead ground, viz.; barren
rock ; to get at the ore.
Dip. The angle at which a vein lies from the
Divide. Any continuous range of mountains from
which the streams flow in opposite directions.
132 GLOSSARY OF MINING TERMS.
The Rocky Mountains are called The Great
Drift. Loose Rock. A level run on the strike
Druse. A cavity lined with crystals.
Dump. The waste pile.
Dunes. Heaps of sand blown up by the wind.
Dyke. Any igneous rock which has filled a fissure
in a straight line, and stands above the level.
Erosion. The act of being gradually worn away.
Thus valleys are made by running water.
Face. The end of a drift or level.
Fault. Where the strata has been shoved to one
side, or up, or down.
Feeder. A small vein leading to a larger one.
Feldspar. A constituent of many rocks. There
are many kinds composed of silicates of
aluminum, and of alkalies, and lime. Hard-
Ferruginous. Relating to iron.
Fire Damp. Carburetted hydrogen gas.
Fissure Veins. Veins filling a rent in solid rock.
Float. Loose ore or rock that has been misplaced.
Floor. The bottom.
Flour-Gold. Gold in a very fine state of division.
Flume. A sluice-way for water.
Flux. Anything mixed with ore, to produce slags.
Footwall. The lower wall of a vein.
GLOSSARY OF MINING TERMS.
Formation. The form, or structure of the country
Freestone. Sandstone easily dressed.
Fusion. The state of melting.
Gad. A pointed iron wedge, used for splitting
Galena. A lead ore, the sulphide.
Gallery. A level from which the ore has been
Gangue. The vein matter, or matrix, holding
Geodes. Rounded hollow nodules of rock, gene-
rally containing crystals.
Glance. A term formerly used to specify bright
Gossan. The decomposed matter on or in an
ore deposit, composed of iron oxide.
Grassroots. The surface above a mine.
Hackly. Having a surface of rough points when
Hade. The slope of a vein, usually applied to
Hanging Wall. The wall on the upper side of a
Horse. A mass of rock in a vein.
Hydraulic Cement. Sets under water. Made from
limestone containing alumina, magnesia, and
134 GLOSSARY OF MINING TERMS.
Hydraulic Mining. Mining placer gold with a
stream of water under pressure.
Igneous. Applied to all rocks cooled from a state
In situ. In fixed place.
Jamb. Any thick rock which cuts off the vein.
Jigging. A method of sorting ore, by shaking
in a sieve in water.
Kies. The sulphides separated from the rock
Kibble. An ore bucket.
Lapidary. One who works in gems; also ap-
plied to dealers.
Lead. A dry river bed yielding ore.
Lean. Poor in metal.
Litharge. An oxide of lead, used in assaying.
Lithology. The study of rocks. Geology applies
to formations of the Earth.
Lode. A regular vein carrying metal.
Loam. A mixture of sand and clay.
Long Tom. A wooden trough for washing gravel.
Magma. The liquid matter within the earth, the
source of igneous rocks.
Massive. Not stratified. Without cleavage.
Matrix. The body or "paste" of any rock- en-
Metamorphic. Changed in form and structure.
GLOSSARY OF MINING TERMS. 135
Mine. A deposit of ore, which has been worked
sufficiently to prove its commercial value.
Mineral. Any substance taken from the earth.
In mining, any ore containing metal in
Muffle. An oxidizing furnace.
Native. As applied in mineralogy, means metal
found pure, or refined by nature.
Nugget. Any lump of native metal.
Open Cast. Any working not underground.
Ore. Applied to any mineral of commercial value,
Outcrop. The exposure of rock on the surface.
Outlier. Any portion of a group of rocks, lying
in a detached position, or out from the main
Oxide. A compound of oxygen with other ele-
Parting. A thin stratum, or layer, which sepa-
rates two formations ; also called a selvage.
Peat. Solid vegetable matter in a bog.
Petrify. To become stone.
Phosphates. Phosphoric acid combinations.
Pinched. When a vein is contracted.
Placers. Gravel diggings on bed rock.
Prill. A good sized piece of pure ore.
Prospect. A vein or other deposit not yet proved
to be a mine.
136 GLOSSARY OF MINING TERMS.
Pulverize. To reduce to powder or dust.
Pumice. A light, porous lava.
Quartz. Silica. Forming rock, and a common
mineral in most rocks.
Range. A mineral-bearing belt of rocks.
Reef. A ridge ; in mining a vein which outcrops
along a range of hills.
Riffles. Bars laid across the bottom of a sluice-
box, to catch the heavy sands and coarse
Rock. The stony portion of the earth's crust.
Rocker. A cradle for washing gravel.
Royalty. A duty on the product of a mine.
Sampling Works. Small plants for testing ores
on a working scale.
Selvage. The sheathing between wall and vein.
Silica. Silex or Quartz.
Shaft. The vertical opening to any underground
Shale. Fissile argillaceous rock. Generally soft.
Shift. The time one set of men work.
Slag. The scoria or waste from a furnace.
Slickensides. Smoothed surfaces on the walls of
Slope. An inclined opening to a mine.
Stockwerke. A number of veins running together
with the enclosing rock mineralized.
GLOSSARY OF MINING TERMS. 137
Stope. To remove the ore.
Sloping Ground. The ore blocked out ready to
Stratified. Showing more or less distinct and
separate layer or strata.
Streak. The color of a mineral when scratched.
Streak Powder. The powder obtained by filing a
piece of mineral.
Strike. The horizontal course of vein or forma-
Stringer. A small vein leading to the main vein.
Stripping. Uncovering an ore-body on the surface.
Stull. The platform used in overhead stoping.
Sulphureous. The odor of burning sulphur.
Sulphurets. Metals combined with sulphur.
Sump. A well in a mine to collect the water.
Swab.- The stick used to clean out blast holes.
Swamp-Ore. Bog iron is sometimes called swamp-
ore, when found in low, wet ground.
Synclinical. The trough formed by the down-
ward inclination of the strata from each side.
The Anticlinal being the ridge formed when
the strata dips in opposite directions.
Tailings. The waste material from a mill.
Tamp. To hammer loose earth into a blast hole.
Trap. Any volcanic rock.
Tufa. Any open porous rock.
Tunnel. A level into a hill.
Unctuous. Having a greasy feel, like soapstone.
138 GLOSSARY OF MINING TERMS.
Underlie. The angle of a vein from the perpen-
Upthrow. An upward displacement of the side
of a fault.
Veinstone. The mineral in a vein which holds
Vitreous. The lustre of broken glass.
Vug. A cavity in a vein.
Weathered. Changed by exposure to the weather.
Whim. A large drum for hoisting by horse-power.
Whin. The Scotch name for hornstone.
Winze. An opening from one level to another
Zone. Used to specify a certain geological posi-
tion, of a strata or layer of rock.
A BBREVIATIONS . . . . 30, 31
** Acids 28, 33, 84, 85
Agates 94, 98
Aluminum 61, 74, 94
Alloys Common. . .125, 126
Analysis 24, 101
Antimony 34. 43
Apatite 79, 85
Aqua Regia 38, 49
Arsenic 33-42, 64, 85
Arsenopyrite 64, 85
Assay Samples for 101
Value of. . . . 103, 109 !
Atomic Weights 31,32 |
"DAROMETER. Natural.. 92
Barium 72, 80
Barite 69, 80
Basalt . . 20
Beaver Mine. Cut of. . . 106
Bell Metal Ore 60
Bessemer Steel 65
Bismuth 60, 61
Bituminous Coal 86
Black Cobalt 57
Black Hills 41
Black Jack 62
Blacklead 41 , 72
Blanket Veins 17
Blende 36, 60, 62
Blowpipe, The 28, 109
"Blowpipe Practice" 28
Bog Ore 17, 67, 69, 70
Bromic Silver 45
1 4 o
Brown Coal 86
Brown Iron Ore 67, 89
/CADMIUM 30, 61, 62
^^ Cairngorm Stone .... 98
California Gold 35
Capillary Pyrites 55
Carbon 71, 72, 93
Carbonates Copper 53
" Manganese. . .70
" of Soda 29
Carter-Walker process, 42, 43
Cash Offer, A n
Cements 80, 126
French 20, 82
Chapman, Prof. E. J 30
Chemical Reactions. . . 24-30
Chemists 32, 101
Chloride of Sodium. . .73, 81
Chromium 3. 95
Chrysoprase . . 98
Cinnabar 50, 89
Clay China 76, 77
Coal 86, 87
Cobalt (See Nickel.)
Contents 5. 6, 7
Copper 24, 30, 36, 50, 89
" Ores 51, 52, 53
Combining Weights 31
Conglomerates 15, 19
Contact Veins 17, 93
Concentration. . . .41, 42, 128
Coral Islands 14
Core Drills 108, 112, 113
Cornish Tin Mines 60
Corundum 75, 91
Crooks Frozen out . . . . 1 18
Crystals 91, 92
Crystalline Limestone, 21,
Crystallization 24, 27
T^AKOTA Tin Mines, 60, 103
*-^ Dana, Prof. J. D. ..27
Deposits Ore 16, 17
Derbyshire Spar 78
Describing Mines. . . 112, 115
Diamonds 24, 91, 92, 93
Diamond Drill, The 113
Diamond Rock 21, 93
Diorite 20, 55
Dipneedle 66, 108
Dolerite 20, 94
Dolomite 20, 77
"Dolly" 39, 40
Drills 113, 114
Dry bone 62
Dykes Trap 15, 22, 93
Dynamite 90, 108
~C*ARTH, Thickness of the, 19
"~* Elements, List of, 31,32
Emeralds 91, 92, 95
Emer y 75, 95
Eruptive Rocks 15
Explanatory Notes, 28,30-34
Exploring 9, 103-110
T^ARMING Risksof. . . . 117
Feldspar Common, 75
Finds, Value of 10
Fire-Clay 76, 77
Fissure-Veins . . . . 16
Fleches d 'amour 99
Flexible Sandstone 21, 93
Foliated Talc 82
Freemilling 39, 40, 41
French Chalk 20, 82
Frue Vanners 41, 42
Fuel, Wood as 126
Furnaces 48, 58, 59
Fusibility of Metals 125
i~* ABBRO 20
^^ Galena 17, 33, 104
Garnets 91 , 97
Gneiss 13, 20
Gold 30, 35, 115, 1 16
" Ores 35, 36, 116
" Native 35
" To test for. .37, 38, 103
" "Dolly" 39, 40
" Treatment of, 40-42, 116
" Freemilling Ore ... .41
" Value of 36, 39
1 4 2
Granite 13, 20
Graphite 71, 72, 89
Gravel Auriferous, 36, 103,
Gravity, Specific ... .24, 121
Gray Copper 52
T TARDNEss-Scale of. 24,
Heavy Spar 36, 80
Hematite 65, 89
Horneblende 19, 82
Hydraulic Limestone. . . .80
Hydromica Schist 21
Hydrous Copper Silicate . . 52
TGNEOUS ROCKS. . 15, 23, 103
Indurated Sandstone 22
Infusorial Earth 90
Investor in Stocks.. 119, 120
Iridosmine 36, 73
Iron Ores of 30, 63
" Bearing Rocks ..19, 36
Itacolumite 21, 93
JACK'S TIN 57
Joint Stock Companies. . 120
T/ r AOLIN 76
Kimberly Mines, 93, 94
"Kit," Prospector's, 108, 109
T ABRADORITE 2O
*~* Land Plaster 79
Lead 30, 37
" Ores 3.47 IO 4
" Silver in 33
Lignite . . . .' 86
Lime, Phosphate of.. 79, 85
Limestone. . 15, 21, 23, 79, 80
| Lithia 30, 83, 84
Lithographic Stone 80
Liver Ore 50
Lodes 16, 99
Lodestone 27, 67
Love's Arrows 99
~j\ /T ACROSCOPIC 30
I Magnesium 72
I Magnetic Iron Ore 66
Magnetic Pyrites. .33, 54, 64
Magnetite 36, 66, 67, 89
Manganese, Ores of, 30, 69, 89
Marble 21, 22, 79
Matte 58, 115
Measuring Water-power, 123
Measures of Ore 121
Mercury .... 34, 36, 40, 49, 50
Metals-Weights and Mea-
Metals-Fusible point of. . 125
To Temper 124
Metallic Ores 36
Metamorphic rocks 15
Mica 19, 38, 83
" Schist 14, 21, 22
Microscope, The .... 30, 37
Mineralogy, Study of. . 13, 27,
100, 107, 109.
Mineral Oil 87
Mines-" Salted" 117
Ho w to Develop ..no
Miner's Inch 123
Mining Dividends 119
" Profits of 120
Risks of. ... 117, 118
Mining, When to begin, 115,
Stocks. .118, 119, 120
Mispickel 43, 64, 65, 85
Mohs' Scale of Hardness, 25
Molybdenite 70, 71
Monazite 36, 81
Moss Agate 99
"\TATQRAL BAROMETERS, 96
Natural Compass.. 67
Natural Gas ..87
Nickel 30, 54, 64, 104
" and Cobalt Ores 54
Nickeliferous Pyrrhotite, 54,
Non-Magnetic Ore 63
OCHRES 67, 89
Oil of Vitriol 84
Operations-Scale of Mining,
Ore Deposits 16, 19, 102, 104
Ores-How to Distinguish,
" Non-Metallic 74
Ores, Cubic feet of ...... 121
" Measures of ...... 121
Selling ...... 114, 115
" Selectingtreatment, 116
Orpiment .............. 85
Orthoclase .............. 75
Osmium ................ 73
Ozokerite Ozocerite ... .87
, NATURAL . .89, 90
Palladium .......... 72
Panning ............ 36, 104
Paraffine .............. 87
Paystreak .............. 18
Peat .................. 88
Petroleum .............. 86
Phosphate of Lime ...... 79
Phoshates ............ 60, 82
Phosphorous ........ 31, 85
Pitchblende .......... 73,88
Placers ...... 16, 36, 39, 103
Plant, Cost of ...... 127, 128
Plaster of Paris ...... 29, 79
Platinum ........ 28, 30, 49
Plumbago .......... 71 , 72
Pockets-Ore ............ 17
Porphyry .............. 22
Potstone ................ 82
Power, Horse .......... 124
Water .......... 123
Practical Pointers ...... 106
Prase .......... _. ....... 98
Precious Stones ...... 75, 91
Preface ................ 3,4
Prospects ... .9, 12, TIO, in
Prospecting 9, 102, 105
Prospector, The 9, in
Prospector's " Kit " .... 108
Pyrargy rite 45
Pyrite-Iron 36, 37, 59, 63
Pyrites-Copper 24, 51
Magnetic 33, 64
Pyrolusite 69, 70
Pyrrhotite 33, 64
QUARTZ 16, 91
Quartz Gems .... 97, 98
Quartz, Gold.. 37, 38, 39, 40
" Veins 37
Milling 39, 40
Quartzite 22, 23
Quicksilver, 34, 36, 40, 49, 50
"D AILWAY 1 10
*^- Rare Metals 72, 73
Reagents 28, 29
Red Copper Ore 52
Red Zinc Ore 62
Refining Ores 58, 128
Rocks, Iron-bearing 19
Names of .... 19-22
" How formed, 13, 14, 15
Rock Crystals 98
Rock Salt 81
Rose Quartz 98
Route, How to choose a, 102,
Rubies 91, 92
C ALE, How to make a, 105,
^ no, in.
Salt, Rock 81
Samples, Dealer in 109
Numbering. . . . 101
Selecting. . 101, 109
Quantity to send
for Assay 101
Sapphires 94> 95
Satin Spar 79
Sedimentary Rocks.. 15, 87
Selenium 29, 30
Serpentine 22, 80
Silicate Cotton 88
Silicified Wood 98
Silver 30, 37, 44, 70, 106
Smelting 58, 127
Furnaces. . . .58, 59
Smithsonite 62, 63
Soapstone 22, 82
Chloride of 73
! Soft Coal 86
I Spathic Iron 67
i Specific Gravity, 24, 28, 121
! Specular Iron Ore 65
i Sperrylite 49
' Sphalerite 62
1 Steatite 22,82
| Steel, To temper or weld, 124
Stone Coal 86
Stones, Precious 91
i Stratified Rocks 15
i Streak 24,25,26
i Stream Tin 59, 103
: Strontia 3. 80, 81
Nickel Ores 54
Platinum Ores.. 49
I Sulphur 29, 33, 84
Sulphuric Acid 63, 84
Sunstone 7 6
Synonyms 31 , 32
''T'ALC 22, 24, 82
Talcose Schist 22
Tellurium 36, 72
Tempering Steel 124
Tin Ores ... .30, 59, 60, 103
Titanic Acid 33
Topaz 96, 98
Trap 15, 20, 22, 103
T TMBER 89
^ Uranium 73,88
Useful Tables 121
^\ TALUE of Gold 35
V Value of Silver 47
Value of a Prospect .... 9, 10
Vermillion 50, 89
Veins 16, 18
" Contact 17
" Fissure 16
" How to open, 37, 104,
" Paying 18
W AD 7
Water for quartz mil-
Water Power, Calculating,
Weights of Ores 121
" of Metals. . 122, 123
Relative, of Metals,
of Water 123
of Wood as fuel ,126
Whartonite 57, 81
^INC 30, 34, 46, 61, 67
^ Zincite 62
Zircon 36, 67
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Qualitative Chemical Analysis. By C. R. Fresenius.
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Hydraulic Gold Miner's Manual. ByT. S. G. Kirkpatrick.
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Quantitative Analysis, A System of. ByC. R. Fresenius.
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Gems and Precious Stones of the United States.
By G. K. Kunz, expert for Tiffany & Co. 410. Illustrated.
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Contains 8 plates in the finest color work executed. Plates alone. 500
Lumberman's Handbook of Inspection and Grad-
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Mineralogy, Text Book Of. By J. D. Dana. 537 pages.
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Blasting Rock, Explosive Compounds, Machine
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W. THOS. NEWMAN
EXPERT IN MINES
Prospects or Mines examined promptly, no
matter where located.
to place Mining Properties properly on the market,
prepared on short notice and accuracy guaranteed.
WORKING TESTS ON ALL ORES ARRANGED FOR.
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including complete Plants for winning and reducing ore carefully prepared.
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University of Toront
i * i
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hor ..Dfewman, W
e Hidden mil
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